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Kari Shurtliff. Miles Freeman. Jennifer Lostracco. Maritza Vega. Dacey McManus. Tracey Wilder. Heidi Bazarsky. Travis Fitzgerald. Shelley - Crazy Wonderful. Jackie Stroble. Louann Pereira. Kimberly Lassabe. Some modern vessels have a diesel-electric powertrain in which the propeller is turned by an electric motor powered by the ship's generators. For ships with independent propulsion systems for each side, such as manual oars or some paddles , [note 3] steering systems may not be necessary.

In most designs, such as boats propelled by engines or sails, a steering system becomes necessary. The most common is a rudder, a submerged plane located at the rear of the hull.

Rudders are rotated to generate a lateral force which turns the boat. Rudders can be rotated by a tiller , manual wheels, or electro-hydraulic systems. Autopilot systems combine mechanical rudders with navigation systems. Ducted propellers are sometimes used for steering.

Some propulsion systems are inherently steering systems. Examples include the outboard motor , the bow thruster , and the Z-drive. Larger boats and ships generally have multiple decks and compartments. Separate berthings and heads are found on sailboats over about 25 feet 7.

Fishing boats and cargo ships typically have one or more cargo holds. Most larger vessels have an engine room, a galley , and various compartments for work. Tanks are used to store fuel, engine oil, and fresh water. Ballast tanks are equipped to change a ship's trim and modify its stability.

Superstructures are found above the main deck. On sailboats, these are usually very low. On modern cargo ships, they are almost always located near the ship's stern. On passenger ships and warships, the superstructure generally extends far forward. Shipboard equipment varies from ship to ship depending on such factors as the ship's era, design, area of operation, and purpose.

Some types of equipment that are widely found include: [ citation needed ]. Ships float in the water at a level where mass of the displaced water equals the mass of the vessel, such that the downwards force of gravity equals the upward force of buoyancy. As a vessel is lowered into the water its weight remains constant but the corresponding weight of water displaced by its hull increases.

If the vessel's mass is evenly distributed throughout, it floats evenly along its length and across its beam width. A vessel's stability is considered in both this hydrostatic sense as well as a hydrodynamic sense, when subjected to movement, rolling and pitching, and the action of waves and wind. Stability problems can lead to excessive pitching and rolling, and eventually capsizing and sinking. The advance of a vessel through water is resisted by the water.

This resistance can be broken down into several components, the main ones being the friction of the water on the hull and wave making resistance. To reduce resistance and therefore increase the speed for a given power, it is necessary to reduce the wetted surface and use submerged hull shapes that produce low amplitude waves.

To do so, high-speed vessels are often more slender, with fewer or smaller appendages. The friction of the water is also reduced by regular maintenance of the hull to remove the sea creatures and algae that accumulate there. Antifouling paint is commonly used to assist in this. Advanced designs such as the bulbous bow assist in decreasing wave resistance. A simple way of considering wave-making resistance is to look at the hull in relation to its wake.

At speeds lower than the wave propagation speed, the wave rapidly dissipates to the sides. As the hull approaches the wave propagation speed, however, the wake at the bow begins to build up faster than it can dissipate, and so it grows in amplitude. Since the water is not able to "get out of the way of the hull fast enough", the hull, in essence, has to climb over or push through the bow wave. This results in an exponential increase in resistance with increasing speed.

The hull is now starting to climb its own bow wave, and resistance begins to increase at a very high rate. For large projects with adequate funding, hydrodynamic resistance can be tested experimentally in a hull testing pool or using tools of computational fluid dynamics. Vessels are also subject to ocean surface waves and sea swell as well as effects of wind and weather. These movements can be stressful for passengers and equipment, and must be controlled if possible.

The rolling movement can be controlled, to an extent, by ballasting or by devices such as fin stabilizers. Pitching movement is more difficult to limit and can be dangerous if the bow submerges in the waves, a phenomenon called pounding. Sometimes, ships must change course or speed to stop violent rolling or pitching.

A ship will pass through several stages during its career. The first is usually an initial contract to build the ship, the details of which can vary widely based on relationships between the shipowners , operators, designers and the shipyard. Then, the design phase carried out by a naval architect. Then the ship is constructed in a shipyard. After construction, the vessel is launched and goes into service. Ships end their careers in a number of ways, ranging from shipwrecks to service as a museum ship to the scrapyard.

A vessel's design starts with a specification, which a naval architect uses to create a project outline, assess required dimensions, and create a basic layout of spaces and a rough displacement. After this initial rough draft, the architect can create an initial hull design, a general profile and an initial overview of the ship's propulsion. At this stage, the designer can iterate on the ship's design, adding detail and refining the design at each stage.

The designer will typically produce an overall plan, a general specification describing the peculiarities of the vessel, and construction blueprints to be used at the building site. Designs for larger or more complex vessels may also include sail plans, electrical schematics, and plumbing and ventilation plans. As environmental laws are becoming more strict, ship designers need to create their design in such a way that the ship, when it nears its end-of-term, can be disassembled or disposed easily and that waste is reduced to a minimum.

Ship construction takes place in a shipyard , and can last from a few months for a unit produced in series, to several years to reconstruct a wooden boat like the frigate Hermione , to more than 10 years for an aircraft carrier. During World War II , the need for cargo ships was so urgent that construction time for Liberty Ships went from initially eight months or longer, down to weeks or even days. Builders employed production line and prefabrication techniques such as those used in shipyards today.

Hull materials and vessel size play a large part in determining the method of construction. The hull of a mass-produced fiberglass sailboat is constructed from a mold, while the steel hull of a cargo ship is made from large sections welded together as they are built. Generally, construction starts with the hull, and on vessels over about 30 meters 98 ft , by the laying of the keel.

This is done in a drydock or on land. Once the hull is assembled and painted, it is launched. The last stages, such as raising the superstructure and adding equipment and accommodation, can be done after the vessel is afloat. Once completed, the vessel is delivered to the customer. Ship launching is often a ceremony of some significance, and is usually when the vessel is formally named.

Ships undergo nearly constant maintenance during their career, whether they be underway, pierside, or in some cases, in periods of reduced operating status between charters or shipping seasons. Most ships, however, require trips to special facilities such as a drydock at regular intervals. Tasks often done at drydock include removing biological growths on the hull, sandblasting and repainting the hull, and replacing sacrificial anodes used to protect submerged equipment from corrosion.

Major repairs to the propulsion and steering systems as well as major electrical systems are also often performed at dry dock. Some vessels that sustain major damage at sea may be repaired at a facility equipped for major repairs, such as a shipyard. Ships may also be converted for a new purpose: oil tankers are often converted into floating production storage and offloading units.

Most ocean-going cargo ships have a life expectancy of between 20 and 30 years. A sailboat made of plywood or fiberglass can last between 30 and 40 years. Solid wooden ships can last much longer but require regular maintenance. Carefully maintained steel-hulled yachts can have a lifespan of over years. As ships age, forces such as corrosion, osmosis, and rotting compromise hull strength, and a vessel becomes too dangerous to sail.

At this point, it can be scuttled at sea or scrapped by shipbreakers. Ships can also be used as museum ships , or expended to construct breakwaters or artificial reefs. Many ships do not make it to the scrapyard, and are lost in fires, collisions, grounding , or sinking at sea. One can measure ships in terms of overall length , length between perpendiculars , length of the ship at the waterline , beam breadth , depth distance between the crown of the weather deck and the top of the keelson , draft distance between the highest waterline and the bottom of the ship and tonnage.

A number of different tonnage definitions exist and are used when describing merchant ships for the purpose of tolls, taxation, etc. In Britain until Samuel Plimsoll 's Merchant Shipping Act of , ship-owners could load their vessels until their decks were almost awash, resulting in a dangerously unstable condition.

Anyone who signed on to such a ship for a voyage and, upon realizing the danger, chose to leave the ship, could end up in jail. Plimsoll, a Member of Parliament , realised the problem and engaged some engineers to derive a fairly simple formula to determine the position of a line on the side of any specific ship's hull which, when it reached the surface of the water during loading of cargo, meant the ship had reached its maximum safe loading level.

To this day, that mark, called the " Plimsoll Line ", exists on ships' sides, and consists of a circle with a horizontal line through the centre.

On the Great Lakes of North America the circle is replaced with a diamond. Because different types of water summer, fresh, tropical fresh, winter north Atlantic have different densities, subsequent regulations required painting a group of lines forward of the Plimsoll mark to indicate the safe depth or freeboard above the surface to which a specific ship could load in water of various densities. Hence the "ladder" of lines seen forward of the Plimsoll mark to this day.

This is called the " freeboard mark " or " load line mark " in the marine industry. Ship pollution is the pollution of air and water by shipping. It is a problem that has been accelerating as trade has become increasingly globalized, posing an increasing threat to the world's oceans and waterways as globalization continues.

It is expected that "shipping traffic to and from the United States is projected to double by The pollution produced affects biodiversity , climate, food, and human health. However, the degree to which humans are polluting and how it affects the world is highly debated and has been a hot international topic for the past 30 years. Oil spills have devastating effects on the environment. Crude oil contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs which are very difficult to clean up, and last for years in the sediment and marine environment.

By the sheer amount of oil carried, modern oil tankers must be considered something of a threat to the environment. An oil tanker can carry 2 million barrels , m 3 of crude oil, or 84,, US gallons 69,, imp gal; ,, L. This is more than six times the amount spilled in the widely known Exxon Valdez incident.

In this spill, the ship ran aground and dumped 10,, US gallons 8,, imp gal; 40,, L of oil into the ocean in March Despite efforts of scientists, managers, and volunteers, over , seabirds , about 1, sea otters , and immense numbers of fish were killed. The International Tanker Modular Kitchen Wooden Work Quotes Owners Pollution Federation has researched 9, accidental spills since Following the Exxon Valdez spill, the United States passed the Oil Pollution Act of OPA , which included a stipulation that all tankers entering its waters be double-hulled by Following the sinkings of Erika and Prestige , the European Union passed its own stringent anti-pollution packages known as Erika I, II, and III , which require all tankers entering its waters to be double-hulled by The Erika packages are controversial because they introduced the new legal concept of "serious negligence".

When a large vessel such as a container ship or an oil tanker unloads cargo, seawater is pumped into other compartments in the hull to help stabilize and balance the ship. During loading, this ballast water is pumped out from these compartments. One of the problems with ballast water transfer is the transport of harmful organisms. Meinesz [74] believes that one of the worst cases of a single invasive species causing harm to an ecosystem can be attributed to a seemingly harmless planktonic organism.

It was first introduced in , and thought to have been transported to the Black Sea in a ship's ballast water. The population of the comb jelly shot up exponentially and, by , it was wreaking havoc upon the local fishing industry. Recently the comb jellies have been discovered in the Caspian Sea.

Invasive species can take over once occupied areas, facilitate the spread of new diseases , introduce new genetic material, alter landscapes and jeopardize the ability of native species to obtain food. Ballast and bilge discharge from ships can also spread human pathogens and other harmful diseases and toxins potentially causing health issues for humans and marine life alike. Exhaust emissions from ships are considered to be a significant source of air pollution. When inhaled, sulfur is known to cause respiratory problems and increase the risk of a heart attack.

Ship breaking or ship demolition is a type of ship disposal involving the breaking up of ships for scrap recycling , with the hulls being discarded in ship graveyards. Most ships have a lifespan of a few decades before there is so much wear that refitting and repair becomes uneconomical.

Ship breaking allows materials from the ship, especially steel, to be reused. In addition to steel and other useful materials, however, ships particularly older vessels can contain many substances that are banned or considered dangerous in developed countries. Asbestos and polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs are typical examples. Asbestos was used heavily in ship construction until it was finally banned in most of the developed world in the mid s.

Currently, the costs associated with removing asbestos, along with the potentially expensive insurance and health risks, have meant that ship-breaking in most developed countries is no longer economically viable.

Removing the metal for scrap can potentially cost more than the scrap value of the metal itself. In most of the developing world, however, shipyards can operate without the risk of personal injury lawsuits or workers' health claims , meaning many of these shipyards may operate with high health risks.

Furthermore, workers are paid very low rates with no overtime or other allowances. Protective equipment is sometimes absent or inadequate. Dangerous vapors and fumes from burning materials can be inhaled, and dusty asbestos-laden areas around such breakdown locations are commonplace. Aside from the health of the yard workers, in recent years, ship breaking has also become an issue of major environmental concern.

Many developing nations, in which ship breaking yards are located, have lax or no environmental law , enabling large quantities of highly toxic materials to escape into the environment and causing serious health problems among ship breakers, the local population and wildlife.

Environmental campaign groups such as Greenpeace have made the issue a high priority for their campaigns. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Large buoyant watercraft. For other uses, see Ship disambiguation. Not to be confused with Boat. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Further information: Glossary of nautical terms. Further information: Maritime history and Sailing ship. This section needs additional citations for verification. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. See also: List of types of naval vessels and List of boat types.

Main article: Building A Wooden Ship Model Song Merchant ship. Main article: Weather ship. Main article: Naval ship. Further information: Naval architecture. Main article: Hull watercraft.

Main article: Marine propulsion. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Fluid statics. Main article: Fluid dynamics.

See also: Naval architecture. Main article: Shipbuilding. Main article: Ship disposal. Main article: Oil spill. Main article: Ballast water discharge and the environment. Main article: Ship breaking. Oceans portal Transport portal. List of fictional ships List of historical ship types List of Panamax ports List of largest cruise ships List of world's largest ships by gross tonnage List of world's longest ships Lists of ships Lists of shipwrecks.

They consisted of planks joined by ropes passing through mortises. In , Egyptian boats composed of planks joined by mortises and tenons were found in Dashur. See: ABC. Only a few examples with separate engines were steerable. The Royal Navy however operated diesel-electric harbour tugs with paddles into the s, for their superior maneuverability. The University of North Carolina. Archived from the original on Wharton's concise dictionary. Universal Law Publishing. ISBN Andrews UK Limited.

Paladin Press. Ship Stability, Powering and Resistance. Reeds Marine Engineering and Technology. Hydrodynamics of High-Speed Marine Vehicles.

Cambridge University Press. United States Navy. Archived from the original on January 14, Retrieved Slate Magazine. Retrieved 4 December The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 28 April The Journal of the Polynesian Society. In Blench, Roger; Spriggs, Matthew eds. One World Archaeology. University of California Press. Kurt eds. Wangka: Austronesian Canoe Origins. In Guy, John ed. Yale University Press. Maritime Southeast Asia to The Seacraft of Prehistory.

Cambridge: Harvard University Press. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Asian Shipbuilding Technology. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. JSTOR Archaeological Institute of America. Wilson, Sc. Director, The Philadelphia Museums. New York: Longmans, Green, and Co. He was recorded as the builder of a cedarwood vessel called "Praise of the Two Lands.

International Journal of Nautical Archaeology. The History of the Ship. New York: Lyons Press. Samurai Warfare. Discovery Channel. Maritime exploration in the age of discovery, � Greenwood Guides to Historic Events, � Greenwood Publishing Group. Architecture navale, connaissance et pratique in French. Encyclopedia Britannica.

The U. Popular Mechanics. Hearst Magazines. January ISSN August Popular Science. Popular Science Publishing Company, Inc. Physics of the marine atmosphere. Academic Press. Massel Ocean surface waves: their physics and prediction. World Scientific. Erickson March Monthly Weather Review.

Bibcode : MWRv CiteSeerX New Scientist. IPC Magazines. Study Panel on Ocean Atmosphere Interaction National Academies. Navy Ships". Environmental Involvement for Young People. Retrieved 15 November Walter W. Palo Alto, California: Glencannon Press. New York: Random House. Archon Books. USA Today. Retrieved November 1, State of Alaska.

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