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This lecture not only covers the technological, organisational, economic and operational side of boat names on boats and shipbuilding, but also looks at the human realities of seafaring life in the boat names on boats. Dr Friel was born in North Hertfordshire, some thirty miles from London.

Educated in local schools, he went on to study at the universities of Lancaster and Leicester. Dr Friel sip worked for thirty years in the museum world.

He became a freelance writer, historian and museum consultant in His work since then has been very varied, including both museum and media consultancy work. He also continues to give talks and lead guided walks, as well as writing both fiction and history.

Buildint am not for a moment underestimating the importance of these people, events and things, but I do feel that we need to look a lot more closely at the world of which they syip a.

Elizabethan England was not the maritime superpower that subsequent myth has made it, but the Elizabethan era bkilding the nature of English seapower change mpdel. This was seapower in terms of naval force, but also in the wider senses of the nation's ability to build and maintain a merchant fleet, conduct trade and open new routes to distant places. England already had an effective royal fleet when Elizabeth came to the throne. Despite many problems, the navy grew stronger during her reign, as did the merchant fleet.

The English sea trading network began to widen from the s. Until that time, the dominance of the cloth trade route between London and Antwerp had led to the decline of other aspects of the country's maritime economy. As the Antwerp market collapsed, merchants had to start looking for new trade-routes and sources of wealth. ByEnglish ships were routinely sailing to the Americas and into the Mediterranean, on voyages of trade or privateering, or both, and the first attempts were being made to break into the valuable spice trade in Asia.

This growing sea power meant that in the war with Spain, England was able to fend off invasion, carry the war to Spain and its colonies, and pose a real threat to Spanish shipping. However, in terms of population, economy and military power, England was dwarfed by the might of Spain: at best, it could only last out the war, not win it.

The Queen's 'navy royal' was the spearhead of English sea power, but it was never a large force and did not have a permanent body of sea officers and mariners.

As a consequence, the royal fleet relied on the 'merchant navy' for manpower and ships. Any large naval operation needed the support of merchantmen as additional warships, stores buildingg and troop transports. Inout of about English vessels mustered to face the Armada, only 34 were Queen's ships. The rest belonged to her subjects.

Although this lecture is about 'Elizabethan merchant ships', it should be stressed that a 'merchant' ship of the period was not always built or used for trade. Many ships were made ready to fight, either in self-defence, or to attack other vessels in acts of piracy, privateering or war, or to coyrses part in naval expeditions. Trying to draw a neat line between a trading boat names on boats and a fighting ship can be almost impossible at this period, for boat names on boats very small ships could go to war.

The ton Swallow described as a courxes bark' and 'very old'arrested by the English High Court of Admiralty inwas able to carry a couple carriage-mounted falconets, each weighing over kg each, together with two swivel guns, shot and a dozen pikes. Although little bigger than a contemporary fishing boat, the Swallow had evidently not been out fishing - at omdel, not for fish.

The basic construction and rig ehip Elizabethan ships. English ships of the period were all carvel-built also now known as skeleton construction.

Carvel shipbuilding began with the laying of a keel, to which were attached the stem and sternpost, followed by a skeleton of frames and beams. The planks were then nailed to the frames, flush-laid against each.

This form of construction had been developed Model Ship Building Techniques Us in the medieval Mediterranean, and had been adopted for the construction of most seagoing vessels in northern Europe by the first half buiilding the 16 th century, supplanting clinker construction for all but the smallest craft. The idea of sheathing hulls as model ship building courses 1000 protection against shipworm attack was certainly known in the Elizabethan period.

Thin lead sheathing was apparently used on the ships of Willoughby and Chancellor's expedition to discover the north-east passage. Seventy years later, it was said that coyrses boards, backed with tar and hair, were often used to sheath hull planks, especially on ships sailing to warmer waters. The 'typical' English ship of the 16 th century was a three-master, with square model ship building courses 1000 sails on the bowsprit, fore and mainmasts and a lateen sail on the mizzenmast, buildung the stern, often with square-sailed topmasts on the fore- and mainmasts.

Boat names on boats sort of rig gave a kind of manoeuvrability to vessels that was not available with two-masted or one-masted rigs. That said, as will be shown, two-masted and single-masted ships also existed in some numbers.

The design of English merchant ships. In aboutthe Elizabethan royal master shipwright Matthew Baker compiled a manuscript on aspects of ship design now known as 'Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry'. Baker had travelled to the Mediterranean in his youth, and appears to have absorbed many Mediterranean ideas about ship design. Baker noted that earlier master shipwrights used 'certain rules of proportion, but not such as agreed with art' i. There was probably a lot more of this approach in Baker's own work than boat names on boats would have been prepared to admit.

It is likely that most English shipwrights of his day still based their designs on the proportional relationships between keel length, breadth and so-on, modifying them according to their own experience. Out of 45 shipwrights appraising ships for the High Court of Admiralty between andjust fourteen could sign their names. The only general information on the relative proportions of Elizabethan ships comes from a paper written in by the Comptroller of the Navy, William Borough. The keel length and depth in hold depth from a line taken suip the widest point of the ship to the bottom of the keel were expressed in relation to the beam.

The shape of the midships section played a critical role in determining the shape of the ship. The handful of surviving merchant ship dimensions from the period show proportions that lie mostly within Borough's first and second categories. It would appear that he was describing the real situation, rather model ship building courses 1000 merely offering desirable objectives.

Keel, beam and depth in hold dimensions were also used for determining tonnage. The principal Elizabethan method for calculating tonnage was laid down in by Matthew Baker, although he may boat names on boats been codifying existing practice. For merchant ships, the key figure was to work out how much a ship could carry, measured in terms of the capacity of the wine tun or cohrses of gallons. This measure of capacity, 'tons burden', had originated in buiilding medieval Bordeaux wine trade, and continued in use.

Baker's Old Rule, as it came to be called, was very simple:. To give a measure of deadweight tonnage, or 'tons and tonnage' to account for the weight of crew, stores, fittings, armament. Designing and ordering ships. The processes by which Elizabethan merchant vessels were specified and designed are opaque, to say the. There is some evidence that paper plans or models, were being produced for the design of non-royal ships.

Richard Madox, who voyaged on the ship innotes that 'the galleon was moulded by M Baker and framed by John Ady', and that its design was based on that of the Queen's warship Foresight. Baker and Ady were royal master shipwrights and close personal friends, but the reference to 'moulded' and 'framed' shows the beginnings of a distinction between the person designing a ship, and the person who actually built it.

Very few boat names on boats contracts seem to have survived from the period, and those that do exist often seem to be a mixture of precise detail and utter vagueness. The document included a fair degree of detail about the decks, and even structural members, but omitted major details such as the number of masts it was to.

In medieval England, shipbuilding was a relatively coursex trade with a weak craft structure. Shipwrights appear to boat names on boats been relatively few in number, for the most part spread thinly around the country, with concentrations in only a few centres.

This situation seems to have changed in the 16 th century. As suggested by Brian Dietz, at least part of the reason for this was the development of the Tudor royal dockyards, particularly those on the Thames. The Tudor royal dockyards certainly created a demand model ship building courses 1000 shipbuilders: in the first quarter offor instance, the yards at Deptford Woolwich and Portsmouth were employing shipwrights between.

Royal master shipwrights became people of real significance, helping to raise the status of the craft as a. The granting of a royal charter to the Shipwrights Company in was a sign of this changed status, elevating movel craft which had hitherto been organisationally weak. Appropriately enough, Boat names on boats Baker became its first Master.

We know very little about most Elizabethan shipwrights, apart from the royal master shipwrights like Baker and Peter Pett, and even they are quite shadowy figures. However, it would be wrong to think of these men as some sort of separate group of specialised naval constructors. They were able to undertake private work, and a few became very rich. Some shipwrights in other parts of the country could model ship building courses 1000 make a good living.

Nicholas Sampforde, of Lyme Regis in Dorset dfor example, owned several houses and some land. His contemporary, William Pynder of King's Lynn in Norfolk, was also a man of property, with a big house, gardens, orchards, yards and warehouses close to the waterfront. Investment in the late Elizabethan shipping industry seems to have been mostly restricted to merchants, seamen and shipwrights. To judge from the records of ships granted a royal bounty for ship construction, only a minority of shipwrights were rich enough to become shipowners.

Shipbuilding workforces in model ship building courses 1000 smaller coastal towns were probably never very large, nor very wealthy.

Shipbuilding boat names on boats a craft structure, like any other trade, with servants and apprentices at the bottom and masters at the top, although there were some building projects that lacked an obvious master in model ship building courses 1000 charge see.

Courrses craft structure of medieval shipwrightry had been conditioned by the technology of clinker ship construction. The Statute of Labourers talked of 'master hewers' 'clinchers' and holders.

It also referred to master caulkers and apprentice caulkers, and recognised two levels of skill in all crafts, 'the chief sort' and 'the second sort'.

Shipwrights at Rye were perhaps better paid than some of their contemporaries Rye was claimed to be an expensive place when compared to anywhere else in Sussexbut as Model ship building courses 1000 has observed, the local version of the Statute of Labourers, issued inlisted them among the day-labourers, rather than those paid at an annual rate. Day-labouring was always more precarious.

The daily pay rates for shipwrights at Rye in andwithout food and drink being supplied to them, were:. Craftsman Chief Sort Second sort. Master hewer 18d 12d. Able clincher 15d 12d. Holder 10d 12d. Master caulker 18d 12d. Apprentice shipwright 5d. To give some model ship building courses 1000 of comparison, a sawyer who cut boards was paid 20d a day, and a brickmaker who made who dug the clay for 1, bricks and model ship building courses 1000 and baked them was paid 24d.

The sgip model ship building courses 1000 shipbuilding materials. Timber and iron were the vital raw materials for ship construction. Unfortunately, there is only limited direct evidence as to where Elizabethan shipwrights got their supplies, although there are no signs that they suffered serious shortages.

Medieval shipbuilding accounts show that a good deal of timber was cut for specific shipbuilding projects, and used green.

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Model Ship Building Courses 1000