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In case the above mentioned library is not imported then the error window is displayed as shown in Figure 6. What will happen if we perform a search on Name?

In this case there is a possibility that we may have more than one matching record. So the major difference between the two applications is that in the new application we will aim at performing a search in which multiple records may be returned.

Observe the code given in Figure 6. This variable is initialized to 0 and is used to keep a track of how many matching records have been found. Two appropriate labels -one against each of the radio button to direct the user. Three buttons -one to refresh data displayed in the table, one to reset the table and one to exit from the application. Change the properties of the radio buttons, labels and button components as learnt earlier so that the form looks exactly like the one displayed in Figure 6.

Before associating the code with the buttons, we need to customize the table component. These rows have to be deleted otherwise they appear as blank rows in the final output and the retrieved data is displayed from fifth row onwards. Once the form has been totally customized, the next step is to associate code with all the three buttons.

This variable will be sued to store the name of the table from which the data has to be retrieved. The value of the specified table is stored in the variable Tname and so this variable is concatenated with the normal SQL statement. Data Connectivity Application 5: To Add Records in a Table Accepted Through a Form with Hindi InterfaceNow that we are clear about data connectivity, let us learn a new feature -to add multilingual support facility to our Netbeans form and database and then display records in our native language as shown in Figure 6.

Adding this command while creating the database ensures that all tables created within this database support Hindi language processing. Therefore, if we execute an SQL command to display all the records of the database then the records will be displayed in Hindi as shown in Figure 6.

Everything an Informatics System has to offer is provided as a service, so users can access these services available on the "Internet Cloud" without having any previous know-how. The cloud is just one example of a virtualized computing platform, and the next generation of developer tools must enable developers to build software that deploys and performs well in cloud and other virtual environments.

A complete application requires a combination of all three concepts i. The JDBC Connection interface defines methods for interacting with the database via the established connection. To execute SQL statements, you need to instantiate create a Statement object using the connection object.

The getConnection method of the DriverManager class is used to establish a connection to the database. The getMessage method is used to retrieve the error message string. The executeUpdate method of the Statement class is used to update the database with the values given as an argument. The executeQuery method is used when we simply want to retrieve data from a table without modifying the contents of the table.

The next method of the result set is used to move to the next record of the database. The getModel method is used to retrieve the model of a table. The getRowCount method is used to retrieve the total number of rows in a A.

The getConnection method is used to establish a connection. An application can have more than one connection with a database. An application cannot have more than one connection with a database. An application can have many connections with different databases. Retrieve a list of users whose name begins with a specific character input by the user and display it one at a time in a form. Search and display records of the users whose birthday is in a particular month where month is input by the user.

Identify the main parts of an HTML document. Identify and state the purpose of different HTML elements. Differentiate between HTML elements, tags, and attributes. Create web pages using different basic and formatting tags.

Well as we can infer from the puzzle given above that assimilation of information and then using the information to solve a problem are of utmost importance. Similarly, information retrieval from the World Wide Web is also of prime importance and this information retrieval is based on protocols.

Information is available on almost all the topics -from Ayurveda to Advaced Medical Surgeries, from basic colors to advanced designs, from fundamentals of computers to latest developments in the field of supercomputers -you name it and internet has it. This information is actually stored on some computers on the net.

These computers are called the servers. The information is stored in the form of some documents called hyper text documents. All the related documents on a server are linked together using hyperlinks. Therefore using hyperlinks we can move from one document to another. This is formally called navigation. There are a number of ways to create hyper text documents. There are many specialized software packages like Dreamweaver, CoffeCup etc.

The simplest way to create a web document is to use a text editor like notepad, notepad2 etc. A hyper text document on the web is also called a web page. TheSemantic Web provides a common format that allows data to be shared and reused from diverse sources. Semantic Web is an effort to make reuse and republishing of data easier.

Semantic web is based on concept based navigation of the web as opposed to fixed term navigation undertaken earlier. Semantic Web provides technologies that can merge information from two sources. When information from two sources in RDF needs to be merged, we can concatenate the files into one big file -joining on those terms which are defined to correspond to the indicators in both the files.

We will use the tools that are already available on our system. Following will be our first web page: Save the file in a specified directory with an extension as. The corresponding web page is displayed in the browser window. Any HTML document contains: a information that is to be displayed by the web-browser.

An HTML element is specified by the corresponding tags. A tag may also contain attribute s. These are discussed below. Start tag consists of the tag name enclosed in left and right angular brackets.

Hence, an empty element has no parameters, but can take attributes, which are given within angular brackets of the start tag. They can also be written using a mix of capital and small alphabets. It identifies the document as an HTML document. It does not have any effect on the appearance of the document, but tells the browser that the current document is an HTML document.

BackgroundIt is used to specify the path and filename of an image that has to be used as the background of the document. If the referenced image is smaller than the browser window, it will be tiled to fit and will scroll with the text on the page. The filename extension has to be specified along with the filename. We can set this to any color of our choice.

The default setting for a non-visited link is usually blue. An active link is a link that has just been keypressed by the user.

Here 'keypressed' does not mean 'clicked'. We can set active link colour to any colour. The default Alink colour is red. We can set this to any color. The default setting for a visited link is usually violet. Thus if an HTML document contains both of these tags, then the specified image will be displayed in the background of the page and the background color will be ignored. If however, the image is not found, the specified background colour will be used as background.

Green, Blue composition may be specified. This composition is specified in hexadecimal notation in the format " rrggbb". The value of each of the composition colors is specified as a hexadecimal number and may vary from 00 to FF. For example, the color code " 00FF00" specifies pure green color and " " specifies a color which contains a mix equal parts of Red, Green, and Blue.

Just try and find out which color it displays. Following this, whenever we say "colorname" in this chapter, it shall mean color name as well as "rrggbb" composition of the color. Instead of "hi" we can use "ks", "kok", "ne", "mr", "sa" for Kashmiri, Konkani, Nepali, The steps to install and use Hindi font are given in the appendix at the end of this book.

You can get more information about UTF-8 and Unicode from the net. There you can also find the information about how to use regional languages in the HTML documents. This element is used to start a new paragraph. But it is highly recommended to put this end tag.

Skipping it may produce unexpected results or errors in some browsers. Future versions of HTML will not allow you to skip end tags. ALIGN attribute specifies the horizontal alignment of paragraph. Any of the alignments -Center, Left, Right -can be specified. LANG attribute specifies the language in which the paragraph is to be displayed as discussed above.

We can use a horizontal line to visually divide the information into sections. The alignment can be left, right, or center.

Default is center alignment. This thickness is specified in the number of pixels. Default is 2 pixels. The default is the width of the page. The measurement value can be the number of pixels, e. The tags learnt so far will help us in designing very basic web pages, but if we want our web page to have different fonts, font sizes and headings we will have to delve further and learn the usage of formatting elements.

Look at the web page shown below in which we have used formatting elements. This text is called a comment. This element is used to give section headings. H1 gives the most prominent heading, while H6 gives the least prominent heading. Heading element introduces a blank line above and below the header text. This element is used to display the text enclosed within the tags in bold form. This element is used to display the text enclosed within the tags in italics form.

This element is used to underline the text enclosed within the tags. It is the ability of the web to also provide images that makes it so popular. Images are of different types like pictures, graphics, icons, clip art, etc. Browse the web and you will see all kinds of images.

Let us now look at another web page and see how we can set font, font size, font color and images in a web page. When we combine all the tags to design a web page, the web page can be made visually appealing. Height is specified in number of pixels or as the percentage of page height. Does it have a specific size? The answer is that a pixel does not have a specific size.

Its size depends on a number of things. One of them is the resolution of the monitor being used. A high resolution monitor has a smaller size pixel than a low resolution monitor because a high resolution monitor has more pixels per inch or centimetre. Therefore the size of your image will vary a little from computer to computer. However, your images and text will always be in the right proportion no matter which monitor they are viewed on -and so they will always look good in any browser.

The FONT element is used to add style, size, and color to the text. We use the size, color, and face attributes to customize our fonts. A list of font names separated by commas can be specified. If the first font is available on the system, it will be used.

Otherwise the second will be tried, and so on. If none is available, the default font will be used. The color can be set by giving the name of the color or its hexadecimal value.

A page designed using list elements is shown below:Let us now look at the code for the web page shown in figure 7. Lists help us to organize the contents on the web page in an ordered and sequential manner. It displays a numbered list. In a numbered list each item is preceded by a number or a letter. This element is used where the items are to be placed in a specific order.

It displays a bulleted list. In a bulleted list each item is preceded by a small symbol called a bullet. The shape of the bullet can be a " DISC specifies a solid round bullet. It is used inside OL and UL elements to define list items. But it is advised not to do so. Nested lists occur when we put one list inside another list.

It is used to define table rows. Other elements, such as heading, paragraph, and tables, etc. All these things will be discussed one by one as we progress.

It is used to create a form on a web page. But this name will not be displayed on the form. This URL is also called the destination of the form. Form-data can be submitted using the methods get or post. It is used to provide an input field in a form where the user can enter the data. An input field may be a textfield, a checkbox, a radio button, a button, and more. Use: It provides a single line text input field where the user can enter text.

It provides a single line text input field where the user can enter password. A password field is different from a text field because a text field displays whatever characters are entered by the user whereas a password field shows one dot for each character input by the user. This is to prevent others from seeing the password. Same as those for TEXT field. It provides a radio button on the form. More than one radio buttons can have and in general have the same name.

All the radio buttons that have the same name constitute a radio group. Only one radio button of a group can be selected at one time. That is, from a group of radio buttons, if the user selects a button, all the other buttons in the set are deselected. When a form is submitted, selected radio button's value specified by the VALUE attribute is submitted to the destination.

It provides a check box on the form. With checkboxes, we can give the users a list of items to choose from. The user can choose more than one items from the list. We can make a group of checkboxes, by giving them the same name. When a form is submitted, selected cheboxes' values specified by the VALUE attribute are submitted to the destination. This attribute is optional. This provides a button on the form. When this button is clicked, the form is submitted to the destination. None - 6.

When this button is clicked, the input fields on the form are reset to their default state. XML has nothing to do with presentation of data in the browser. The XML standard was created by W3C to provide an easy to use and standardized way to store self-describing data Self-describing data is data that describes both its content and its structure.

Each of these receiving platforms can then convert the XML into a structure the platform uses normally. This way communication between two potentially different platforms is achieved using XML.

To store self-describing data, XML allows us to create our own tags. Once an XML file is created with the help of user-defined tags, it needs to be transformed into the target platform format. Following is an XML code to store the data of a class -names of three students and one teacher. You can type this code in any text editor and save the file with any name and extension XML.

HTML is used to display data and to focus on formatting of data, whereas XML is used to describe data and focus on what data is. We create our own tags. XML is extensible. XML allows the user to create his own tags and document structure. XML can be used to store data.

Applications can be written to store and retrieve information. XML can be used to exchange data. In the real world, databases contain data in different formats. It is difficult to exchange data between such systems over the Internet. Converting the data to XML can help in solving this problem and create data that can be read by different types of applications.

XML is free. XML is a W3C recommendation. In future with the help of development in semantic web technologies we will click on the web page for the meeting, and our computer, will be able to comprehend it as a form of appointment, will pick up all the right information, and understand it and send it to all the right applications. Further, it will evoke those applications directly using web services needing little or no human intervention. The main difference between XML and HTML Features of XMLThe W3C Web Accessibility Initiative WAI brings together people from industry, disability organizations, government, and research labs from around the world to develop guidelines and resources to help make the Web accessible to people with disabilities like auditory, cognitive, neurological, physical, speech, and visual disabilities.

A web browser is a client that initiates communication by making a request for a specific resource. The server then responds with the content of that resource, or an error message if unable to do provide the contents due to any reason.

A resource can be a file or a web page. Explain with an example the difference between container and empty elements. What is the importance of the BODY element? Explain the src and align attribute of the IMG tag. How can we create an HTML page that allows the user to enter his details on that webpage? Mention the tags that are required to be used to create the given 1. Students should perform search on a topic, such as: "nuclear armageddon" , "global warming" etc.

Realize that much more is to be learnt for effective use of databases. In the previous class, you have learnt some database concepts and SQL commands.

That will make the base for further reading of the concepts and some more SQL commands which are really very useful in practical applications. You have already studied the following database concepts in class XI Database: A database is an organised collection of data.

Relational Database: A database in which the data is stored in the form of relations also called tables is called a Relational Database. In other words a RelationalDatabase is a collection of one or more tables. It is suggested that they are revised through practical assignments. Think of the functioning of a computerised school library. In a school library, there are books which are issued to the students and the staff. These books are also returned after a certain period of time.

For proper functioning of this system the librarian maintains a database an organised collection of data which contains the Laboratory Manual Mathematics Class 10 Cbse Win relevant data of books, students, and staff. In a relational database, this data may be organised as a collection of the following tables:Admission numbers of the students who have not returned the books issued to them.

The names of books issued to a particular staff member or student. STAFF --As there is no column for which each row has a unique value, there is no primary key of this table.

Libraries function without computers also. Discuss it with your teacher. Once MySQL is procured downloaded from net, or copied from somewhere, or received free with some book , it can be installed and the process of creating Library database can be started.

If you observe carefully, you will find that these queries need to access data from two tables simultaneously. You have not yet studied how to do this. For example: iv Display the highest and the lowest values from Price column of the table Books.

The IN operator selects values that match any value in the given list of values. NULL means a value that is unavailable, unassigned, unknown or inapplicable. Complete the following cross-word puzzle using SQL commands and clauses: After studying this lesson the students will be able to:Define the terms: It may also be required to find the total number of customers in each category.

So the complete statement to do this is: ii. Display the Name and Department Name of all the employees. Display the names of all the employees whose salary is not within the specified range for the corresponding department. Team size recommended: 3 students each team A chemist shop sells medicines manufactured by various pharmaceutical companies. When some medicine is sold, the corresponding stock decreases and when some medicines are bought by the chemist shop from their suppliers, the corresponding stock increases.

Now the shop wants to keep computerized track of its inventory. The shop owner should be able to findThe current stock of any medicine. The total sale amount of any specific time period a specific day, or month, or any period between two specific dates The details of all the medicines from a specific supplier.

Total value of the medicines in the stock. There may be a number of other reports which the shop owner may like to have. The job of each team is to design a database for this purpose. Each team has to specify:The structure with constraints of each of the tables designed with justification. How the tables are related to each other foreign keys. How the design will fulfill all the mentioned requirements. At least 10 reports that can be generated with the database designed. To expand its business, XYZ Mall plans to go online.

Anyone who shops at the Mall will be given a membership number and Password which can be used for online shopping. With this membership number and password, customers can place their orders online. The mall will maintain the customers' data and orders' data. A person is put on duty to keep constantly checking the Orders data. Whenever an order is received, its processing has to start at the earliest possible.

The Orders' data will be analysed periodically monthly, quarterly, annuallywhatever is suitable to further improve business and customer satisfaction. After studying this lesson the students will be able to: Define a TransactionDescribe reason why all the tasks in a transaction should be executed fully or not at all.

Perform basic transactions. Commit a transaction. Add Save Points to a transaction. Roll back a TransactionRoll back a Transaction to a Savepoint. We executed SQL statements without concern about inconsistencies arising due to group of statements not being executed in entirety. In this lesson, we will study the basic concepts of Transaction processing and how MySQL ensures consistency of data when a group of statements is executed.

He is very helpful. During summer vacations, he helped his aunt's son in his studies. Raunak walked up to the bank to present the cheque. It tells MySQL that the transaction is beginning and the statements that follow should be treated as a unit, until the transaction ends. Commit statement is issued at a time when the transaction is complete-all the changes have been successful and the changes should be saved to the database.

These markers are useful in rolling back a transaction till the marker. We can add a savepoint anywhere in a transaction. When you roll back to that savepoint, any changes made to the database after the savepoint are discarded, and any changes made prior to the savepoint are saved.

It is like semicomitting a transaction. The following statement sets the autocommit mode to off. It also commits and terminates the current transaction. The card will hold a limited amount of information but will be backed up by further information held in a database with the Government. Some information will be visible on the card, some encoded on chip in the card and other detailed information about each citizen will be present in tables in a database.

We shall also take up a few examples for better understanding. All IT applications process some data entered by the user. For example, when an examinee has to see his result on the net, he has to enter his roll number. To place an order online for some purchase, the buyer has to enter some information about himself and the item to be purchased. Similarly for any IT application the user has to enter some data which may be just a number or a lot of data like buyer's details. Every IT application provides some sort of form using which users enter the data.

To create a front-end various components, like those studied in Java GUI application development, are used. Some of Front-End Interface the most commonly used components are discussed below. TextArea:TextArea is used to get long textual information which may span multiple lines of text.

This may seem to be the case where CheckBoxes are to be used, but the difference is in the number of options available. If the number of options is small, thenCheckBoxes can be used.

In case of large number of options, usingCheckBoxes may take up a lot of space on the form and it may also be inconvenient for the user to select the desired options. In such casesLists are preferred over checkboxes. Examples of such cases are: To select cities out of a given list of cities, to select magazines out of a given list of magazines, etc. ComboBox:A ComboBox is used to get an option out of several given options which are mutually exclusive. This may seem to be the case where When the options are mutually exclusive, then a List can also be used instead of a ComboBox.

It all depends on the space available on the form a ComboBox consumes less space as compared to a List and the look of the form which the form designer has to decide. Front-end interface is the face of any application. In most of the cases, the front-end decides whether the application will be easily accepted or not.

If the front-end is convenient and unambiguous for the user, then the user will like to use it and hence the application will be given positive reviews. If the front-end interface is inconvenient for the user, then the user will not like to use the application. Following are a few tips to make the front-end more and more user friendly: 3. Help the user enter correct data in the first go: Ask for minimum textual data to be entered by the user.

If you have to ask for class and section, provide a list to choose the class, provide radio buttons to choose the section. This way user has the options only to enter the valid data. If you ask the user to enter the class and section in a text box, then the user has all the options to enter the data and hence more chances of entering invalid data.

Listen to all: Before creating the user interface, you should speak to the potential users and get their ideas to decide the design of user interface.

You should put a limit there only. You must get the ideas but you are not bound to use these ideas. Use your skill and commonsense to decide which of these should be incorporated and which one should not be. The aim is to create a consistent, convenient, and logically correct user interface. Smooth shifting from one window to the next or the previous : Make the sequence of moving from one window to another exactly same as the flow of work the application is made to do.

Any IT application usually stores a lot of data in the form of a database which is not visible to the user. This database is used by the application to give suitable responses to the user. For Example, the database of train reservation system stores all the data about trains and passengers, the database of an online shopping system stores the data of all the items available in the store, and so on. If the front-end interface makes the user like or dislike the application in the first go, then the back-end decides whether the user will keep liking the application or not.

A good backend improves the speed of the application. A good back-end also ensures easy modification of the application whenever required. Following are the features of a good back-end database:It should use multiple tables for storing data to avoid data redundancy. Tables in the database should be created using constraints wherever applicable. Keys Primary and Foreign of tables must be defined. To make the application efficient and effective, you should also follow the guidelines given below It should meet all the requirements of the problem, for which the application was created.

It should have user-friendly interface to make the user comfortable while using. Keep the navigation of input in a standard order as much as possible. Most significant information should be entered first. There should not be any ambiguity in data and information and it should avoid inputting duplicate information anywhere in any form. A database application consists of Front-End and Database Back-end. These two entities cannot work in isolation.

This connectivity is achieved as learnt in Chapter 6 Database Connectivity. If the application is web based then the connectivity is achieved using some scripting language like vbScript or JavaScript.

There are numerous IT applications. These centres are accessible to anyone and people can use these to get guidance, information, and services without paying any money to touts or middle men. This portal not only gives the information about Government of India, but also allows the users to apply online for various services provided by the government. After going through these various IT Application sites, you must have realied that all these applications simplify the processes.

Now, let us find out how these applications are created. Examples of ITFor developing such application, one needs to follow the following steps:Step 1: Identify the problem for which the application is to be developed and discuss about its feasibility. If the applications is technically and economically feasible possible and profitable to carry out , then steps are taken for its development, otherwise the project is scrapped.

Make sure that the data types and sizes of the columns in the tables are carefully planned and used. Create database and tables as per the requirement of the application. Step 3: Identify and decide, which all inputs are required to be taken from the user in the Front-End of the application. Develop the front-end of the application as per the requirement and ease of use. It is always better if the sample data are collected from potential users of the application randomly.

Now, the application is ready for implementation. Examples:We shall take 3 examples, one from each of the categories: e-Business, e-Governance, and e-Learning, to better understand the process of IT application development. Let us see how can we develop the application which we described as 2nd Team based exercise in chapter 9. The Orders' data will be analysed periodically monthly, quarterly, annually -whatever is suitable to further improve business and customer satisfaction.

Step 5: After development the application is tested by giving membership numbers and passwords to the employees of the mall itself so that the application can be tested with multiple sets of random data. If any discrepancies are found during test, the corresponding corrections are made in the application. After complete testing, the application is implemented and the customers are given membership numbers and passwords.

Each registration authority in-charge will regularly update the data. Citizens will be given read only access to this data.

Its economic and technical feasibility are discussed. It is found that the application development and implementation are technically and economically feasible. So the corresponding authority may be the State Transport Authority gives a green signal for application development. Step 5: After development the application can be tested by entering various registration numbers. If any discrepancies are found during test, the corresponding corrections can be made in the application.

After complete testing, the application can be implemented. Hindi version of this IT application can look like as follows:An organization of dedicated teachers, 'Meticulous Teachers Consortium', decides to invite computer aided teaching modules from individuals and organizations so that these can be put on the internet for students' use free of cost.

No money will be charged from users and no money will be paid to the developers. Once the modules start pouring in, a front-end is created for the students where the students can select any of the available modules to learn any topic.

To get input from a user, following front-end interface can be designed:Once the desired input is obtained the corresponding module is executed.

Step 4: Database connectivity between the Front-end interface and back-end database can be established using some scripting language like Javascript or VBScript etc. Step 5: After development the application can be tested by selecting various modules and running them.

ICT helps economy grow at a faster rate as it provides transparency in the processes and helps the government to keep check on defaulters. Due to e-Banking and use of plastic money more money is put in circulation leading to faster growth of GDP.

Infomania is the condition of reduced concentration caused by continually responding to electronic communications such as e-mail, SMSs, MMSs etc.

ICT is making more and more people infomaniac. This is making some people waste their productive time in the office, neglect their families and duties. Some people are also in a habit of frequently checking their e-mails even when they are on vacation with their families. We have to be careful in the use of ICT so that we use it constructively and not get obsessed with it and become infomaniacs.

Social and Economic benefits of ICT:Infomania: e-Learning applications use technology to effectively deliver and monitor learning and teaching processes. A good front-end ensures the acceptance of the application in the first go. The back-end of an IT application is the database in which all the data is stored. This database resides in the server. All the data which is requested by the front-end is supplied by back-end. A good back-end ensures sustainability, efficiency and easy modification of the application.

Development of an IT application involves creation of front-end, back-end, and connecting these two. It also involves testing the application and then implementing it. Use of ICT has its social and economic impacts. Society is impacted as due to ICT people change their way of conducting the transactions and thus save their time, money, and energy. Economy is impacted as ICT leads to fast completion of data transfer and data processing jobs.

ICT also brings transparency in the administration. The teacher should divide the class in teams of students each and challenge teams to solve the given puzzle. The teams that solve the puzzle within 3 minutes, 4 minutes, and 5 minutes are awarded the title of 'Fasttrack', 'Achiever', and 'Able' respectively.

Each line of the phrase is a palindrome. Solution3 Solution 4The lady's children are aged 2, 2 and 9. The student knows her berth number but he is not able to reach the answer. That means the sum must be same for two of the pairs. From the third option, we get a constraint that, there is only one elder child.

Complex Indic text support is automatically enabled. Therefore you just need to enable the keyboard for the language that you want to use by following the steps in the Enable a keyboard layout section. For Windows XP, some additional setup may be required to support Indic languages.

Therefore you first follow the steps given under Enabling International Language Support in Windows and then proceed with the steps given under the Enable a keyboard layout section. Step 1: Click Start and then go to Control Panel. Step 4: In the Regional and Language Options dialog box, under Supplemental Language Support, select the Install files for complex script and right-to-left languages check box.

Click OK or Apply. After the files are installed, you must restart your computer. Step 1: Under "Text services and input languages," click on the "Details Step 2: Under Installed Services, click "Add Step 4: In the Add Input Language dialog box, click the Input language list and select your preferred language and dialect. Then, click OK. Step 5: In the Text Services and Input Languages dialog box, on the Settings tab, click the Default input language list, and select the language you will use most often.

The language you select as the default will display when you first start your computer. If you have finished adding languages, click OK. Click the Standards and formats list, and then select your region. Step 7: Click the Location list, and then select your location. Step 8: Once done, click OK to exit. You should now see a language indicator in the System Tray located at bottom right hand corner of the desktop by default If you do not see the language bar in the task bar at the bottom of the desktop or floating on the desktop please do the following:Step 1: Click Start, click Control Panel, and then double-click Regional and LanguageOptions.

Step 2: On the Languages tab, under Text services and input languages, click Details as shown in Figure 8. Step 3: Under Preferences, click Language Bar. Step 1: Open the application in which you would like to enter Indic text. Step 2: Change the language using the language bar, which typically appears in the taskbar as follows.

Step 4: You can now start typing in English and whatever you type automatically gets transliterated after a word-breaking character like a space, comma, etc.

Note that this language setting is per application. The Microsoft indic input tool comes with a virtual keyboard that can be used to type in notepad. List various security threats to computer networks List the preventive and corrective measures against these threats Have you ever worked on Internet? Have you ever used an ATM? Have you ever given the print command on a computer to get the printout on a printer attached to some other computer?

Have you ever transferred songs from your computer to a cell phone or vice-versa? If the answer to any of these questions is YES, then you have experienced and utilized the services of a computer network. In this chapter you will study about various types of computer networks, their benefits, and what is required to create computer networks.

Can you place 10 coins in such a way that they lie in 5 straight lines and on each line there are exactly 4 coins? Such situations are faced by the designers of computer networks. They have to think of various ways of interconnecting the computers so that the specific goals of network setup are achieved. A computer network is a collection of interconnected computers and other devices which are able to communicate with each other and share hardware and software resources.

Why do we have computer networks? Are there any advantages of networked computers over stand alone computers? Yes, there are many. A few of these advantages are carry data for a very large distance at a stretch. Not susceptible to electromagnetic fields Specially skilled people are required to install optical fiber cables.

Till date it is the most expensive and at the same time the most efficient cable available for computer networks. Recall when you throw a stone in a pond, circular waves are generated and spread outwards. Similarly, radio waves are generated by the transmitter and spread in all the directions.

Relatively inexpensive than wired media. It offers ease of communication over difficult terrain The transmission can be interfered by motors or other electrical equipment Permission from concerned authorities is required for use of radio wave transmission Less secure mode of transmission Micro waves have a frequency range of MHz 0.

This range has some overlapping portion 0. Microwaves travel in straight lines and cannot penetrate any solid object. Therefore for long distance microwave communication, high towers are built and microwave antennas are put on their tops.

Distance between two microwave towers depends on many factors including frequency of the waves being used and heights of the towers. These waves travel in straight lines and therefore the sending and receiving antennas have to be aligned with each other. An example of usage of microwaves for communication is as follows: In the big cities where land is very costly and a lot of formalities have to be completed to get permission to dig land for cabling, microwave antennas can be put on top of high rise buildings and communication can be started in a short time.

No government license is required for their use It is a line of sight transmission, therefore at a time only two devices can communicate. The waves do not cross any solid object in between Performance drops with longer distances Bluetooth technology uses radio waves in the frequency range of 2.

This technology is used for short range communication approx. Baby monitors, door openers, and cell phones are some of the devices that utilize Bluetooth communication. Characteristics of Bluetooth Transmission: Line of sight between communicating devices is not required. Think Why? Bluetooth can connect upto eight devices simultaneously. Communication satellites are normally owned by governments or by government approved organizations of various countries are physically interconnected to form a network is called a Topology.

Every machine in a network has another unique identifying number, called its IP Address. An IP address is a group of four bytes or 32 bits each of which can be a number from 0 to A typical IP address looks like this: An IP Internet Protocol address is a unique 4 digit hexadecimal number assigned to each node on a network.

Using IPv4 only 2 approximately 4 billion distinct devices can be addressed. In the current scenario and in the near future, this is a small fraction of the number of objects which need to be allocated IP addresses. As the human population and also the number of devices which need to be online mobile phones, home appliances, personal communication devices, etc.

To address this problem IPv6 was developed and it is now being deployed. IPv6 also includes an important feature: a set of possible migration and transition plans from IPv4. There are many other features of IPv6. You can explore the internet and find more information about IPv6. A domain name usually has more than one parts: top level domain name or primary domain name and sub-domain name s. It happens as follows: Suppose you mention a URL in the web-browser to visit a website.

The browser first checks your computer to find if the IP address of the server corresponding to the Domain Name embedded in the URL is present. If this address is present then with the help of this address, the corresponding server is contacted and then the website opens in your browser. Otherwise the browser sends this domain name to some specific servers called domain name servers to find the corresponding IP address.

Once the IP address is known, the server is contacted and then the website opens in your browser. Domain Name Resolution is the process of getting corresponding IP address from a domain name. These services were originally performed under U. On the other hand a weak password is generally the name of a person or organization, the registration number of a vehicle, year of birth of a person and so on. A weak password can be cracked in a few attempts. Examples of strong passwords may be raavanisdead raavan is dead -with spaces removed , 2aur2paanch name of an old Hindi movie or anything like that.

Chennai Tamil Nadu and schools in various parts of the globe. The 'SF School' will have 3 computer labs with 30 computers in each, 1 Accounts office with 3 computers, 1 Administrative block with 5 computers, and 1 Principal's office with 1 computer. Let us see how a computer network can be set up in the school. Source Software Security "If anyone can contribute to open source software, doesn't it become a free-for-all full of loopholes?

Getting a change incorporated into an open source project is thus rather like getting an article published in a scientific journal. Open source software. Give at least two examples of OSS. Justify that free software is not open source software.

Team size recommended: 3 students each team 1 Download open office on your computer. Write down its components, their areas of applications, their file extensions. Figure 33builder: It is an area to place components on the form visually.

We can switch over from one view to another by simply clicking on the source and design tabs directly above the Design Area. Palette: Palette contains controls or components used to create GUI applications. Window: This window is used to display a hierarchy of all the components or controls placed on the current form. Properties Window: Using this window we can make changes in the properties of currently selected control on the form.

Code Editor Window: -It is the area where we write code for our java application. Components also known as "widgets" are the basic interface elements the user interacts with: jlabels, jbuttons, jtextfields etc. Components are placed on a container like the jFrame.

There are two types of controls : They act as a background for other controls. For example-Frame. When we delete a parent control, all its child controls get deleted. When we move a parent control all its child controls also move along with it. For example-Text Field, Label, Button etc. Figure 3. Select New Project from the File menu. In the Categories pane, select the General node. In the Projects pane, choose the Java Application type.

Click the Next button. Enter the name of the project in the Project Name field and specify the project location. Do not create a Main class here. Click the Finish button. Let us recap the relation between a Project, Form and Components. Each application is treated as a Project in NetBeans and each project can have one or multiple forms and this fact is clear from the Projects window as shown in Figure 3. The visible components are all shown under the Frame Component and the non-visible components are part of Other components.

We use the drag and drop feature of NetBeans to place components on the form to design an effective interface for our applications. Montant des subventions aux associations par an. Montant moyen des subventions aux associations par an. Nombre de subventions aux associations par an.

Entre et Top 20 Ci-dessous, le classement des types d'associations ayant eu le plus de subventions entre et Enseignement technique agricole. Inclusion sociale et protection des personnes.

Immigration et asile. Jeunesse et vie associative. Recherches scientifiques et technologiques pluridisciplinaires. Politique de la ville. Protection judiciaire de la jeunesse. Aide juridictionnlle qui transite par une association. Subvention de fonctionnement application de l'article L. Acquisitions et commandes publiques dans le secteur des arts plastiques.

Subvention de fonctionnement Accompagnement des public. Insertion sociale. Mise en oeuvre des prestations de tourisme social "vacances enfants" et "vacances familles".

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