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Another advantage the turtle ship had was that it could turn on its own radius. The turtle ship had 10 oars and 11 cannon portholes on each side. Usually, there was one cannon porthole in the dragon head's mouth. There were two more cannon portholes on the front and back of the turtle ship. The heavy cannons enabled the turtle ships to unleash a mass volley of cannonballs some would use special wooden bolts several feet in length, with specially engineered iron fins.

Its crew complement usually comprised about 50 to 60 fighting marines and 70 oarsmen, as well as the captain. Sources indicate that sharp iron spikes protruded from hexagonal plates covering the top of the turtle ship. An advantage of the closed deck was that it protected the Korean sailors and marines from small arms and incendiary fire. The spikes discouraged Japanese from engaging in their primary method of naval combat at the time, grappling an enemy ship with hooks and then boarding it to engage in hand-to-hand combat.

Korean written descriptions all point to a maneuverable ship, capable of sudden bursts of speed. Like the panokseon, the turtle ship featured a U-shaped hull which gave it the advantage of a more stable cannon-firing platform, and this ability to turn within its own radius was useful to attack enemies by spinning at the same spot using cannons mounted on the four sides of the turtle ship as cannons in those days took considerable time after firing and before cooling and reloading.

The main disadvantage of a U-shaped bottom versus a V-shaped bottom was a somewhat slower cruising speed. Later Turtle Ships held some structural changes as opposed to earlier versions.

There are sources that state that the turtle ship was covered with metal plates, [4] [12] [13] [14] making the first known ship of this kind in history. One Japanese chronicle mentions a clash in August which involved three Korean turtle ships "covered in iron". There are no contemporary Korean sources from Yi Sun-sin's time which refer to the turtle ship as ironclad.

There is also the question of motivation for adding metal plating. Since the Japanese did not commonly employ cannons on their ships until decades later, [27] let alone use plunging cannon fire , any plating would have logically been designed as an anti-incendiary measure, not to withstand cannonballs. As it was, Yi Sun-Sin, who was largely cut off from government supplies throughout his campaigns, found the small amount of fifty pounds of iron worth mentioning in his war diary.

Until further information comes to light to the contrary, the likeliest conclusion is that Yi Sun-sin's turtle ship was armored only insofar as it was constructed of heavy timbers and covered with a thick plank roof studded with iron spikes - which against the light guns of the Japanese was armor enough. Evidence for an iron plated turtle ship is found, according to Stephen Turnbull , in a drawing of the turtle ship where the shell is shown as being covered by a distinct hexagonal pattern, implying that there is something covering the wood shell.

Hawley puts forth the hypothesis that the idea of ironclad turtle ships has its origins in the writings of late 19th-century Westerners returning from Korea.

The dragon's head was placed on the top of the ship at the bow. Several different versions of the dragon head were used on the turtle ships.

The dragon's head was first placed as an early form of psychological warfare in order to scare Japanese soldiers. One version carried a projector that could release a dense toxic smoke that was generated to obscure vision and interfere with the Japanese ability to maneuver and coordinate properly.

Yi's own diary explains that a cannon could be fitted in the mouth of the dragon to be fired at enemy ships. Metal spikes were used to cover the top of the turtle ship to deter boarding tactics used by the Japanese.

According to historical records, the spikes were covered with empty rice sacks or rice mats to lure the Japanese into trying to board, since the boarding would appear safe.

However, modern authors have found this to be unlikely since such an arrangement would have invited enemy fire arrows. There was also an arquebus known as Seungja Victory. The Seungja ranged metres ft while the Hwangja was the lightest but with a range of 1, metres 3, ft. According to Hae-Ill Bak, one Japanese record of the Battle of Angolpo records the experience of two Japanese commanders on July 9, in their battle against turtle ships: "their turtle ships' attack continued until about 6 o'clock in the afternoon by firing large fire-arrows through repeated alternate approaches, even as close as feet.

As a result, almost every part of our ships - the turret, the passages and the side shielding - were totally destroyed Yi resurrected the turtle ship as a close-assault vessel, intended to ram enemy ships and sink them, similar to their use in past centuries. Xavier is based in Paris, France. Xavier has been covering naval defense topics for nearly a decade. Related Articles. Naval News Staff 28 Mar Austal USA broke ground on its steel manufacturing line today positioning the company to start steel production in April Xavier Vavasseur 19 Mar Xavier Vavasseur 17 Mar Steel also supplanted wrought iron when it became readily available in the latter half of the 19th century, providing great savings when compared with iron in cost and weight.

Wood continued to be favored for the decks. During World War II , the need for cargo ships was so great that construction time for Liberty ships went from initially eight months or longer, down to weeks or even days. They employed production line and prefabrication techniques such as those used in shipyards today.

The total number of dry-cargo ships built in the United States in a year period just before the war was a grand total of two. During the war, thousands of Liberty ships and Victory ships were built, many of them in shipyards that didn't exist before the war. And, they were built by a workforce consisting largely of women and other inexperienced workers who had never seen a ship before or even the ocean.

After the Second World War, shipbuilding which encompasses the shipyards, the marine equipment manufacturers, and many related service and knowledge providers grew as an important and strategic industry in a number of countries around the world.

This importance stems from:. Historically, the industry has suffered from the absence of global rules [ citation needed ] and a tendency towards state - supported over-investment due to the fact that shipyards offer a wide range of technologies, employ a significant number of workers, and generate income as the shipbuilding market is global.

Japan used shipbuilding in the s and s to rebuild its industrial structure; South Korea started to make shipbuilding a strategic industry in the s, and China is now in the process of repeating these models with large state-supported investments in this industry. Conversely, Croatia is privatising its shipbuilding industry.

As a result, the world shipbuilding market suffers from over-capacities, depressed prices although the industry experienced a price increase in the period � due to strong demand for new ships which was in excess of actual cost increases , low profit margins, trade distortions and widespread subsidisation.

All efforts to address the problems in the OECD have so far failed, with the international shipbuilding agreement never entering into force and the � round of negotiations being paused in September after no agreement was possible. After numerous efforts to restart the negotiations these were formally terminated in December Where state subsidies have been removed and domestic industrial policies do not provide support in high labor cost countries, shipbuilding has gone into decline.

The British shipbuilding industry is a prime example of this with its industries suffering badly from the s. In the early s British yards still had the capacity to build all types and sizes of merchant ships but today they have been reduced to a small number specialising in defence contracts, luxury yachts and repair work.

Decline has also occurred in other European countries, although to some extent this has reduced by protective measures and industrial support policies.

In the US, the Jones Act which places restrictions on the ships that can be used for moving domestic cargoes has meant that merchant shipbuilding has continued, albeit at a reduced rate, but such protection has failed to penalise shipbuilding inefficiencies. The consequence of this is that contract prices are far higher than those of any other country building oceangoing ships. Beyond the s, China , South Korea and Japan dominate world shipbuilding by completed gross tonnage.

The market share of European ship builders began to decline in the s as they lost work to Japan in the same way Japan most recently lost their work to China and South Korea. Over the four years from , the total number of employees in the European shipbuilding industry declined from , to , Modern shipbuilding makes considerable use of prefabricated sections.

Entire multi-deck segments of the hull or superstructure will be built elsewhere in the yard, transported to the building dock or slipway, then lifted into place. This is known as "block construction". The most modern shipyards pre-install equipment, pipes, electrical cables, and any other components within the blocks, to minimize the effort needed to assemble or install components deep within the hull once it is welded together.

Ship design work, also called naval architecture , may be conducted using a ship model basin. Previously, loftsmen at the mould lofts of shipyards were responsible for taking the dimensions, and details from drawings and plans and translating this information into templates, battens, ordinates, cutting sketches, profiles, margins and other data.

Modern ships, since roughly , have been produced almost exclusively of welded steel. Early welded steel ships used steels with inadequate fracture toughness , which resulted in some ships suffering catastrophic brittle fracture structural cracks see problems of the Liberty ship.

Since roughly , specialized steels such as ABS Steels with good properties for ship construction have been used. Although it is commonly accepted that modern steel has eliminated brittle fracture in ships, some controversy still exists. As modern shipbuilding panels on a panel line become lighter and thinner, the laser hybrid welding technique is utilized. The laser hybrid blend focuses a higher energy beam on the material to be joined, allowing it to keyhole with a much higher depth to width ratio than comparative traditional welding techniques.

Typically a MIG process trails the keyhole providing filler material for the weld joint. This allows for very high penetration without excessive heat input from decreased weld metal deposited leading to less distortion and welding at higher travel speeds.

All ships need repair work at some point in their working lives. A part of these jobs must be carried out under the supervision of the classification society. A lot of maintenance is carried out while at sea or in port by ship's crew. However, a large number of repair and maintenance works can only be carried out while the ship is out of commercial operation, in a ship repair yard. Prior to undergoing repairs, a tanker must dock at a deballasting station for completing the tank cleaning operations and pumping ashore its slops dirty cleaning water and hydrocarbon residues.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the construction of ships. For the song, see Shipbuilding song. For other uses, see Shipwright disambiguation. Not to be confused with Boat building. Construction of ships and floating vessels. Archaeological Institute of America. The Sydney Morning Herald.

Archived from the original on 26 July Retrieved 28 April The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives. Australian National University Press.

ISBN Archived from the original on 2 April Retrieved 23 March Bibcode : Natur. PMID S2CID Canoes of the Grand Ocean. BAR International Series Archived PDF from the original on 26 July Retrieved 22 October Examining pre-colonial Southeast Asian boatbuilding: An archaeological study of the Butuan Boats and the use of edge-joined planking in local and regional construction techniques PhD.

Flinders University. In Ludden, David ed. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Asian History. The Journal of Pacific History. JSTOR University of California Press. Retrieved 4 June Princeton University Press. In Blench R, Spriggs M eds. One World Archaeology.

International Journal of Nautical Archaeology. Maritime Southeast Asia to New Jersey: Princeton University Press. The Seacraft of Prehistory. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Reade ed. The Indian Ocean in Antiquity. London: Kegan Paul Intl. Krebs, Carolyn A. Krebs Greenwood PressScience. London: Evans Brothers Limited, Asian Shipbuilding Technology.

Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. Ships and Seafaring in ancient times. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.




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