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Rollins Passelevation 11, The pass is located on and traverses the Continental Divide of the Americas at the crest of the Front Range southwest of Boulder and is located approximately five miles east and opposite the resort in Winter Park �in the general area between Winter Park and Rollinsville.

Rollins Pass is at the boundaries of BoulderGilpinand Grand counties. The abandoned rail route over Rollins Pass was nominated for and accepted into the National Register of Historic Places in because of significant events and engineering feats accomplished by railroading efforts in the early 20th century.

Inadditional areas on the pass were added to the National Register of Historic Places to include achievements made by John Q. Rollins and his toll wagon road that traversed the pass.

InRollins Pass was listed as one of the most endangered sites in Colorado. The elevation of '11, feet' commonly attributed to Rollins Pass note the McClure sketch later in this article "reflects what might have been an original survey value obtained during either the late wagon road era or early railroad construction.

When adjusted to NAVD88the elevation is, without doubt, 11, Rollins Pass has been in continuous use for millennia: first as an internationally significant game drive complex that was hand-constructed and used by Paleoindians more than 10, years ago through the midth century; [9] followed by nearly two decades as a wagon road from �; as a rail route under surveyconstruction, and later operational from to ; as a primitive automobile road from to ; and for the past 64 years�from through present day�as a motor vehicle road.

The pass is steamboat springs uphill access 01 by Paleoindians and Native American game drive complexes, [2] : 8 hiking trails, including the Continental Divide Trail ; an airway radial V8[3] a 10" Xcel Energy high-pressure natural gas pipeline, [4] [5] [6] [7] and two roads:.

The Front Range was created by the Laramide Orogenythe last of steamboat springs uphill access 01 major mountain-building events, which occurred between 70 and 40 million years ago. Tectonic activity during the Cenozoic Era changed the Ancestral Rocky Mountains via block uplift, eventually forming the Rocky Mountains as they exist today.

The geologic make-up of Rollins Pass and the surrounding areas were also affected by deformation and erosion during the Cenozoic Era. Many sedimentary rocks from the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras exist in the basins surrounding the pass. Paleoindians and early Native Americans were the first to utilize Rollins Pass as a natural, low crossing over the Continental Divide for the purposes of communal hunting of large steamboat springs uphill access 01, including bighorn sheep and elk.

Steamboat springs uphill access 01 rock walls drove prey toward hunters waiting in blinds. These unique high-altitude constructs were built, refined, and continually used over millennia.

The game drives built on�and over�Rollins Pass have international significance. The Olson site 5BL is a multi-component rock walled game drive and is but one part of a much larger game drive complex located on Rollins Pass. Byron Olson and James Benedict conducted work at the site in the lates. Present-day archaeology teams built on Olson and Benedict's work to expand the overview of the site using modern techniques.

As ofat least 45 blinds as well as 1, meters of rock walls are present across the Olson site; the purposes of which were to funnel game upslope to waiting hunters.

Both radiocarbon and lichenometric dating suggest occupation by Native Americans spanning the last 3, steamboat springs uphill access 01, with diagnostic tools suggesting even older use of the site, dating back to more than 10, years ago. Game drives at other locations on Rollins Pass yield hundreds of additional blinds and miles of rock walls.

Rollins Pass has a documented history as a migratory route, hunting trail, and battlefield among the late prehistoric and contact-period Indians steamboat springs uphill access 01 Colorado.

While it is possible to ride a horse across the Range at almost any point steamboat springs uphill access 01 some of the higher and rougher peaks, the Indians were as much interested as the white man in seeking a good grade.

Steamboat springs uphill access 01 of wagons they used teepee poles as drag-poles for transportation of supplies and papoosesand it was necessary that they follow easy grades and broad level country, wherever practical.

The first recorded use of the pass then known as Boulder Pass or Rollinsville Pass by a wagon train was innearly 14 years before Colorado became a state. Steamboat springs uphill access 01 Q. Newspapers cited that he was so careless about his credit that he could not keep track of all his creditors, and in turn, they had trouble keeping track of. His simple tombstone reads, "John Q. John Rollins capitalized on this and received approval for his toll wagon road on Tuesday, February 6, Rollins, Perley Dodge, Frederic C.

Crawford is credited as the first woman to cross the pass. Then he came back for her with the team and the running gear only of the wagon, and she had Steamboat Springs Utilities Management to hold the children on someway, despite the dreadful bumping" [60] [61] with the "wagon almost standing on end.

The pass was used heavily in the latter half of the 19th century by settlers and at one time as many as 12, cattle at a time were driven over the pass. Rollins would "build a cribbing of logs Rollins also built The Junction House"a large, two-story hewd-log structure" as a hotel, "at the point of intersection of the Berthoud and Rollins roads. The road began to fall out of use and into disrepair inapproximately one year before early railroading attempts over the pass begun.

Guinn Mountain, encircling Yankee Doodle Lake, was used for mining from the early s through the establishment of the railroad in This area held at least "four silver lodes" [68] or "five patented lode claims, one patented placer claim, several prospect pits and the dump of one caved adit. It was concluded that the "Guinn Mountain area has little or no economic potential," despite listings of important mineral strikes in period newspapers.

Samples from the Avalon placer claimlocated on the South Fork [of] Middle Boulder Creek north of Steamboat springs uphill access 01 Mountain, and from the creek bottom were collected and panned; no gold was. Rogers' line in ; U. This entire line from Denver to Craig was known as the Moffat Road. The line included a mile 37 km stretch over the top of the Continental Divide, at Rollins Pass, with a two to four percent grade and switchbacks along many sections; the result was one of the highest adhesion non-cog standard-gauge railroads ever constructed in North America.

Other notable landmarks on the route included the Riflesight Notch Loop, located at Spruce Mountain: [94] a 1. A rail station, Corona, was established at the summit of the pass, with a red brick dining hall, weather station, power stationand lodging. Despite the fact that the line was enclosed in almost continuous snowsheds wooden tunnels near the summit of the pass, trains were often stranded for several days and in some cases up to 30�60 days [] [] [] [] during heavy snowstorms because snow could fall or be blown through the wood planking of the sheds.

Delays affected the timeliness of steamboat springs uphill access 01 newspaper and postal mail deliveries. Coal smoke and toxic gasses collected in the snowsheds causing temporary blindness, loss of consciousness, and sometimes death. Following scuba divesno evidence exists that locomotive, rotary, or wreck debris rests at the bottom of Yankee Doodle Lake or Jenny Lake. Despite the challenges documented above, byit was reported that 45 or 46 engines were part of the motive power of the railroad along with 3 rotary snowplows.

Several locations for the Moffat Tunnel were scouted prior to the selection of the present-day location; one possible location was identified at high altitude between Yankee Doodle Lake and the Forest Lakes. Plans to build a longer tunnel at a lower elevation were better planned and financed; the single-track Moffat Tunnel opened just south of Rollins Pass on Sunday, February 26, After the Moffat Tunnel opened, the tracks over Rollins Pass remained in place and were maintained at least as late as July [] as an emergency steamboat springs uphill access 01. This emergency route was needed only once [] for a several day-long closure: on Thursday, July 25,dry rot of wooden timbers caused a collapse and 75 feet 23 m of rock caved-in and blocked the Moffat Tunnel near the East Portal.

It took until Tuesday, July 30, for the tunnel to be cleared of debris. The Moffat Tunnel continues to be used for both the Amtrak 's California Zephyr that provides service between Chicago, Illinois and Emeryville, California as well as for the winter and sometimes summer [] Ski Train that operated between Denver and Winter Park from to ; in March and from �present, the service was rebranded the Winter Park Express. The original law that authorized the construction of the Moffat Tunnel specified that it should also be used for automobile traffic, with automobiles being placed on a ferry of flatbed railcars.

To date, this has not happened. In the era of powered flight, Rollins Pass provides an attractive way to cross the Continental Divide between west and east at a relatively low point for aircraft.

Not only steamboat springs uphill access 01 the enroute airway radial, Victor Eightcross the pass; but also a rotating airway beacon was established in the mid-to-late s and first appeared on aeronautical sectional charts in March as a star, indicating a beacon. The rough road that was once used to service and reach Beacon Peak at the Continental Divide, branches off of the Rollins Pass road, and is closed to all forms of motorized traffic per the current Motor Vehicle Use Maps.

Plans to convert Rollins Pass into an historic automobile road were first published in November Inafter several engineering studies and structural strengthening of Needle's Eye Tunnel were accomplished, the complete road was re-opened only to close permanently indue to a rockfall injuring a sightseer. Ina natural gas pipeline was placed on Rollins Pass. The pipeline continues across the railbed towards and under the twin trestles, down the old wagon route on the spine of Guinn Mountain, and then towards Eldora.

A majority of Rollins Pass is located within the boundaries of two national forests� Roosevelt National Forest and Arapaho National Forest �and as such, is federal land. County sheriffs as well as United States Forest Service Law Enforcement personnel and staff routinely patrol and enforce natural and cultural resources on Rollins Pass as well as in other areas within the National Forest System.

On both sides of Rollins Pass, the steamboat springs uphill access 01 prism contains both prehistoric and historic artifacts buried under the surface. Any improvements to steamboat springs uphill access 01 rough road through regrading, including paving, would first require extensive sectional archaeological excavations by the United States Forest Service.

In several places, on or just under the surface, historical artifacts are covered with steamboat springs uphill access 01 stabilization fabrics having characteristics that match the soil and permeability of the existing roadbed.

There are several drystack retaining steamboat springs uphill access 01 on both sides of the pass, built without mortar, helping ensure they retain soil but not water. There are also several historic gravesites across Rollins Pass.

One granite headstone at Arrow reads, "R. Smith June 28, Nov. Rollins Pass has unique floral, faunal, and riparian zones that spread across multiple Colorado counties; to best preserve the native environment of Rollins Pass, leave no trace and trail ethics apply to all visitors.

Steamboat springs uphill access 01 Pass consists of several distinct floral environments including lodgepole pine and quaking aspen at lower elevations, and krummholz at tree line.

Above tree line, the landscape consists largely of small perennial wildflowerscryptobiotic soilsand alpine tundra. The latter being extremely fragile and if damaged, can take � years to recover. The mountain pine beetle epidemic, beginning in and continuing through present day, affects many forested areas in Colorado, including those on Rollins Pass.

One out of every 14 trees in Colorado is dead. The top predator in the area are black bears Ursus americanusgenerally below timberline; however, they occasionally venture above the krummholz. The bears prey on bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis and mountain goats Oreamnos americanusas well as yellow-bellied marmot Marmota flaviventris in the region.

Above timberline, pikas Ochotona princeps are common. At or below timberline, both elk Cervus canadensis and mule deer Odocoileus hemionus are common. The presence of migratory steamboat springs uphill access 01 sheep and other large game is the reason why Native Americans constructed sprawling yet intricate game drive complexes on Rollins Pass. The porcupine can be seen at all elevations on Steamboat springs uphill access 01 Pass, including at and above the summit.

The porcupine begins its rounds at sunset, as it is nocturnal ; this member of the rodent family also has the ability to adroitly climb trees. Among birds, steamboat springs uphill access 01 white-tailed ptarmigan Lagopus leucurus are present on Rollins Pass, especially above treeline.

Their seasonal camouflage is effective in the summer against the exposed blocks of granite as well as against snow in the winter, rendering them virtually undetectable. Brown-capped rosy finches Leucosticte australisrock wrens Salpinctes obsoletusand pipits are also seen or heard at timberline and near the summit.

Nutrient-rich ecosystems exist on Rollins Pass where water, and bodies of water, meet the alpine and subalpine tundras. Historically, Yankee Doodle Lake was referred to as Lake Jennie by John Quincy Adams Rollins, but modern steamboat springs uphill access 01 have re-interpreted this to be the modern day Yankee Doodle Lake; [2] : 20 the railroad and period newspapers occasionally referred to this lake as Dixie Lake.

The South Boulder Creek runs at the start of Rollins Pass on the eastern side; but first flows through Buttermilk Fallsa large foot-long m waterfall, near Steamboat springs uphill access 01 Lake, visible from the summit and upper eastern portions of Rollins Pass. Steamboat springs uphill access 01 summer project led by the United States Forest Service and having the participation of steamboat springs uphill access 01 environmental steamboat springs uphill access 01 user groups saw improvements made to wetlands, lakeshore, and upland habitats at Yankee Doodle Lake and Jenny Creek.

In the summers, wildfire danger increases due to various environmental factors: low moisture, lightning strikes, high winds, and human-caused factors.

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