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Mongolia made its first baaysgalan at the Asian Games in Tehranbatmagani have a total medals, including 20 gold, 37 silver, bayasgalan batmagnai 54 80 bronze. At the previous edition bayasgalan batmagnai 54 IncheonMongolia had collected 21 medals, and standing in the 16th position in medals tally.

Bayasgalan batmagnai 54 entered nine athletes 6 men's and 3 women's to participate in the athletics competition at the Games. Mongolia men's batmagnxi women's basketball team entered the competition, drawn in group A for the men's and in group Y for the women's.

The following is the Mongolia roster in the men's basketball tournament baywsgalan the Asian Games. The following is the Mongolia roster in the women's basketball tournament of the Asian Games. Mongolia national bayasgalan batmagnai 54 team participated in the Games. The following is the Mongolia roster in the men's 3x3 basketball tournament of the Asian Games.

The following bstmagnai the Mongolia roster in the women's 3x3 bayasgalan batmagnai 54 tournament of the Asian Games. Mongolia entered two athletes to participate in the gymnastics competition at the Games. One male athlete competed in the artistic event and one female athlete in the rhythmic event.

Mongolia participated in bayasgalan batmagnai 54 karate competition at the Games with three men's athletes. The following is the Mongolia roster in the men's volleyball tournament of the Asian Games. Mongolia entered 12 wrestlers 6 men's and 6 women's at the Games.

The contingent has collected two gold, a silver, bayasgalan batmagnai 54 three bronze medals. Violating the anti-doping rules, Orkhon was stripped of her gold medal. From Baayasgalan, the free batasgalan. Sporting event delegation. Further information: Asian Games medal table. Main article: Archery at the Asian Games. Main article: Athletics at the Asian Games.

Main article: Badminton at the Asian Games. Main article: Basketball bayasgalan batmagnai 54 the Asian Games. Main article: Basketball at the Asian Games � Men's tournament. Mongolia men's national basketball team - Asian Games roster v t e.

H Host. GBK Basketball Hall. Main article: Basketball at the Bayasgalan batmagnai 54 Games � Women's tournament. Mongolia women's national basketball team - Asian Games roster batmagbai t e. Istora Gelora Bung Bayasgalan batmagnai 54. Main article: 3-on-3 basketball at the Asian Games � Men's tournament. Main article: 3-on-3 basketball at the Asian Games � Women's tournament. Source: [ citation needed ] Rules for classification: 1 Wins; 2 Head-to-head results; 3 Points scored.

Main article: Bowling at the Asian Games. Main article: Boxing at the Asian Games. Main article: Cycling at the Asian Games. Main article: Fencing at the Asian Games.

Main article: Golf at the Asian Games. Main article: Gymnastics at the Asian Games. Main article: Ju-jitsu at the Asian Games. Key : ADV � Won by advantages. RDC � Won by referee decision.

SUB � Won by submission. Main article: Judo at the Asian Games. Key : 1st number � Ippon 2nd number � Waza-ari s � Shido. Main article: Karate at the Asian Games. Main article: Kurash at the Asian Games. Main article: Modern pentathlon at the Asian Games. Main article: Paragliding at the Asian Games.

Main article: Roller sports at the Asian Games. Main article: Sambo at the Asian Games. Key : SU � Won by submission. Main article: Shooting at the Asian Games. Main article: Soft tennis at the Asian Bayasgalwn. Main article: Sport climbing at the Asian Games. Main article: Squash at the Asian Games. Main article: Swimming at the Asian Games. Main article: Table tennis at the Bwyasgalan Games.

Bxtmagnai article: Taekwondo at the Asian Games. Main article: Tennis at the Asian Games. Main article: Bat,agnai at the Asian Games. Btamagnai article: Volleyball at the Asian Games. Main article: Volleyball at the Asian Games � Men's tournament.

Source: Asian Games Rules for classification: Pool standing procedure. Main article: Weightlifting at the Asian Games. Main article: Wrestling at bayasgalan batmagnai 54 Asian Games. Key : F � Bayasgalan batmagnai 54 bqtmagnai fall.

PP � Decision by points � the loser with technical points. PO � Decision by points � the loser without technical points. ST � Great superiority � the loser without technical points and a margin of victory of at least 8 Greco-Roman or 10 freestyle points. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Retrieved 17 August Mongolian National Broadcaster. Retrieved 25 July Pikiran Rakyat. Olympic Council of Asia.

Archived bayasgalan batmagnai 54 the original gayasgalan 12 September Retrieved 2 January Retrieved 30 December Retrieved 19 August Archived from the original on 16 August News Press. Archived from the original on 17 December Retrieved 14 December International Bayasgalan batmagnai 54 Federation.

Retrieved 6 August batmagnaii Retrieved 28 December Retrieved 6 September Retrieved 1 January Hidden categories: CS1 Mongolian-language sources mn CS1 Indonesian-language sources id Articles with short description Short description matches Natmagnai All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from April Namespaces Article Talk.

Bayasgalan batmagnai 54 Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Mongolian National Olympic Committee. Gold 4 Silver 9 Bronze 11 Total Men's freestyle 57 kg.

Women's freestyle 62 kg. Bayasgalan batmagnai 54 Nandinzayaa.

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Therefore, moving downward in administrative scale, households were selected for participation by their aimag , soum , bagh , and khot ail. Respondents were self-identified as a head of the household with decision-making abilities. The survey contained questions related to household characteristics; water, sanitation, and hygiene WASH behaviours; farm and animal husbandry practices; and knowledge on zoonotic disease and their perceived risks.

Unimproved water categories include unprotected springs or dug wells and drinking surface water directly i. Johnston, personal communication, March 2, Sanitation systems such as pit latrines without slabs, hanging latrines, buckets or containers, and open defaecation are all considered unimproved. Data were assumed to be missing at random due to item nonresponse De Leeuw et al. Analyses were conducted using only available data.

Table 1 outlines the characteristics of the surveyed households. The mean age of the respondents was Household size was largely between 3 and 5 members Almost all herding families were living in gers Most households did not have electricity Manure, wood, and other biofuels were the predominant source of heating fuel Goods and assets ranged throughout the homes.

Table 2 describes household water, sanitation, and hygiene access and behaviours. Less than half of the households surveyed used an improved drinking water source Twenty-eight percent of households used an unimproved drinking water source. Most households did not have a designated hand washing area or sink Those that did have a hand washing site often went outside to access the area The majority of respondents reported washing their hands in the morning Sanitation services for the herding families were largely unimproved The most common improved sanitation service in the homes was to bury the waste in a hole Figure 2 provides several examples of the lack of water and hygiene services in the rural households.

Panel a depicts a recently slaughtered sheep stored without refrigeration or covering to prevent contamination. The third panel, c, demonstrates a drinking water source shared between survey households and their livestock.

Photographs of water and hygiene risks at rural herder sampling sites in Dundgovi province were taken by author Amber N. Barnes during field work. A recently slaughtered sheep has been left to dry next to aaruul under a household storage building a , household toothbrushes and handwashing soap and water are stationed outside next to grazing livestock b , and a drinking water well is being shared between several households, livestock, and wildlife c.

Table 3 depicts animal contact and household zoonotic risk factors. Herding households reported animal contact The animal manure primarily served as a fuel for fire at the home Observational data from the researchers acknowledge that fires are central in the ger both for warmth and for cooking meals. All homes reported domestic animal ownership or presence.

No home had any chickens. Of the households that reported dog ownership or presence, most self-reported that they removed dog waste from around the homesite Diarrhoeal disease in animals had occurred in However, only Figure 3 explains how animal contact and zoonotic exposure risks differed by the gender roles of household members. Males were largely in charge of slaughtering Females were primarily tasked with milking animals However, many responsibilities were shared across both sexes.

Both male and female household members were responsible for sick animals Gender of the household member with reported responsibilities for animal care among herding families of rural Mongolia.

Table 4 describes household zoonotic knowledge and risk perception. But a belief in reverse zoonotic disease transmission human to animal was less understood with half of the households Most respondents reported a belief that animal contact can be hazardous to human health Only a small percentage of the households believed that a human health risk from animal contact could be diarrhoeal disease 8.

Other advice offered by respondents included wearing gloves and washing hands after animal contact. Within the study population, pastoralism and animal herding was common. Across all provinces, the majority of participating households lived in gers. While easy to transport and set up in new locations conducive to herding, the mobility of this housing structure also means that it is not tied into municipal infrastructure or power grids and the construction design is penetrable by synanthropic rodents and other vectors as well as harsh weather conditions.

Gers are typically one building with a shared living, sleeping, cooking, and dining space for multiple family members. Due to the crowded living quarters, infectious diseases can be easily transmitted person-to-person Lofgren et al. As most of the households did not have electricity, the source of fuel for heating the home and for cooking meals was predominantly manure from cattle argal or other livestock, wood, or other biofuels.

Collection and drying of animal manure for household fuel is common for rural Mongolian herding families Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation ; Sack et al. Animal waste is a known vehicle for multiple zoonotic pathogens, and the extreme Mongolian winter weather makes it hard to achieve the sustained temperature periods necessary to inactivate pathogens for safe handling Zambrano et al.

Using animal manure for cooking that has not been treated puts household members at risk for faecal-oral transmission of zoonotic diseases Luna et al.

Hand washing was customary in the morning and after animal contact, the latter of which is an effective zoonotic disease prevention strategy Zambrano et al. Most households do not use an improved drinking water source and instead rely on open streams, ponds, and lakes in the environment and the collection and melting of snow.

In rural areas, these sources are shared with livestock on the nearby pastures as well as wildlife Bedunah and Schmidt ; Karthe et al. A report on population and housing characteristics in Mongolia found that 6. The report also found that Runoff from animal and human waste can contaminate these water bodies, and industries such as mining and climate change factors such as desertification are reducing accessible water supplies Hawkins and Seager ; Barnes et al.

Consuming water from an unimproved source can expose a person to many types of infectious agents and even toxic chemical contaminants Uddin et al. Yet, a large portion of the participants in this study reported boiling water prior to use. Indiscriminate human and animal waste can be a major health hazard in rural Mongolia. The households in the current study were principally using unimproved sanitation methods, with almost half practising open defaecation.

Previous census data in Mongolia reported that only 7. Comparably, Exposure to human and animal waste in the environment can spread disease and encourage vectors Zambrano et al. In Mongolia, some of the biggest obstacles to better WASH practices and utilization come from unhealthy practices and hygiene customs, negative cultural beliefs surrounding protective behaviours, and poorly designed and accessible infrastructure UNICEF Other hygiene-associated concerns for zoonotic disease exposures among nomadic and pastoral communities involve cultural food preparation techniques and dietary items Tsend et al.

Brucella can also be transmitted through animal contact with infectious tissue and abortion fluids and by eating contaminated raw meat Bat-Erdene et al.

Meat, another staple of traditional Mongolian cuisine, comes from home-slaughtered animals within the rural provinces and can be dried borts for long-term storage and consumption throughout the year Foggin et al.

In addition, during home slaughtering, the offal from livestock is often fed to dogs, which can then introduce zoonotic disease to an animal with close proximity to the household and to household members Ito and Budke ; Barnes et al.

Echinococcosis is an endemic zoonotic enteric parasite in Mongolia that is often spread through contact with an infected dog who was contaminated through eating viscera of infected livestock Ito and Budke ; McFadden et al. Almost all study households had at least one dog, and field researchers observed many participating households feeding canines the internal organs of livestock.

Dogs are also the primary source of human rabies infection in Mongolia and are usually untethered and left to wander Odontsetseg et al. Not only can the disposal of animal remains be an issue for rural areas in the prevention of disease spread, but uncovered food items attract flies, which can carry and transmit zoonotic enteric parasites, as well as synanthropic rodents that can harbour and spread disease Odontsetseg et al.

Furthermore, preparing food items with unsafe water or on unclean surfaces can lead to water-borne and other enteric disease exposure Karthe et al. Gender roles exist within the pastoralist homes of rural Mongolia but can become blurred when it comes to taking care of the joint herds Cooper and Gelezhamstin ; Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation The breakdown of animal care and husbandry responsibility among the study households mirrored that of other research in rural Mongolia Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation ; Ahearn b.

Women were the lead person for milking the animals and for preparing meals for the family. Men were the ones in charge of slaughtering and butchering animals. However, studies have shown that cooperation with herding is common during times of high demand Cooper and Gelezhamstin ; Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation ; Ahearn a. For this study, both genders worked together when a sick animal needed care, to herd the animals, to feed the animals, and when an animal needed assistance with a birth.

Livestock birthing season in Mongolia is a high-risk time for exposure to the endemic zoonotic disease of Brucella but may also be helping to spread leptospirosis Odontsetseg et al. Leptospires have been associated with the reproductive tract and tissues and abortion fluids of livestock and dogs across the globe, including Mongolia Odontsetseg et al.

With each of these behaviours, there is a risk for zoonotic disease transmission. And because animal contact of some kind occurs across all age groups of a herding household, each family member has their own set of unique exposure risks Tsend et al. Recognizing the target audience at the household for the development of prevention methods against specific zoonotic pathogens or exposure pathways is critical to ensure that the most at-risk population is pursued.

For example, messages related to Brucella prevention could be best focused on female herding household members responsible for milking livestock while education on safe slaughter and butchering techniques to prevent echinococcosis may be aimed at male members.

In herding households, all members experience contact with livestock, companion animals, and even wildlife, which can lead to zoonotic and reverse zoonotic disease transmission Ebright et al. Harsh climates, resource scarcity, and herd competition can also promote malnutrition and lowered immune competence among animals, exposing them to infection, outbreaks, and high mortality rates Batsukh et al.

When young animals are ill or malnourished, or at risk for predation or cold weather, they may be brought inside the ger Foggin et al. This was also the case for the rural households in this study. Recognizing household exposure threats can bring about positive behaviour changes aimed at reducing zoonotic disease risk.

A baseline knowledge about how zoonoses are spread from animal to animal, animal to human, and in the case of reverse zoonoses, human to animal, is necessary for developing interventions and risk reduction strategies for household members Odontsetseg et al.

Although most rural herding households reported that they believe animals can cause disease in humans, the opposite direction of transmission was less understood. And even though the overall knowledge on the existence of zoonotic disease was high, beliefs and attitudes regarding how animal contact could pose a specific hazard to public health were lacking.

Almost half of the respondents correctly identified ectoparasites i. This individual knowledge is important as diarrhoeal disease is a recurrent problem in Mongolia, especially during the summer months, and the Ulaanbaatar National Center for Communicable Disease has a hospital unit dedicated to diarrhoeal patients Ebright et al. Seasonal zoonotic enteric disease patterns show peaks in spring and summer months that may be associated with food-borne transmission, fly vector density, livestock birthing times, and exposure to faecally contaminated water in the environment Lal et al.

Acknowledgement of the zoonotic potential of animal waste is important within the study population as a large majority of households described diarrhoeal illness among their animals with several reporting subsequent mortality.

The faecal-oral spread of zoonotic disease is prevalent in areas without access to safe WASH barriers like clean water, hand washing with soap, and the proper disposal of excrement Ecrumen et al.

When an outbreak of zoonotic disease is potentially occurring, it is critical to report the event to a local veterinarian or human health care provider so that treatment or control procedures can be administered to stop the spread of infection Zinsstag et al. However, less than half of the participating herders notified their veterinarian of the diarrhoeal disease circulating among their animals.

Previous research has demonstrated that effective programming on media channels used by herders and the public health messages conveyed by local veterinarians were successful in educating how to prevent zoonotic disease transmission and motivating positive behaviour change in herding communities Bayasgalan et al.

With high literacy rates across all groups, written campaigns and educational materials on zoonoses could be combined with other media channels to appeal to herding families National Statistical Office of Mongolia Mobile phone accessibility and usage was common within this study population.

This is reflected by other surveys in the region and should be explored for reporting zoonotic outbreaks in real time as well as sharing prevention and control strategies with rural herders Odontsetseg et al. High-risk seasonal herding activities, like slaughtering of animals before winter, could serve as key times to spread preventative messages to target populations Odontsetseg et al.

Setting up One Health awareness and educational campaigns, or epidemiological and veterinary trainings, before the spring work for birthing begins typically March and April and before milking season July and August may allow for more herder participation Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation Additionally, water supply, collection, and usage decisions in Mongolia do not fall under the typical female gender role category like other pastoral and rural communities across the globe Hawkins and Seager Both males and females share at least some decision-making abilities in regard to aspects of household and livestock water usage; therefore, WASH-related enteric zoonotic disease prevention messages should target each gender Hawkins and Seager ; Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation This study had limitations.

Data was self-reported and may not accurately reflect the true risk factors for zoonoses in the participating households. Hand washing was not observed for duration or use of proper methods and therefore may not be adequately serving as a barrier to disease in reporting households.

In addition, many rural households participate in multiple types of sanitation services throughout the year, depending upon their seasonal location. For example, although women in the household may use open defaecation while living in the ger during herding activities, she may use a flush toilet if she moves her children into the soum centre during the winter.

This is also the case for drinking water sources. For this study, the respondent reported their primary drinking water source or sanitation service.

Convenience sampling did not take into consideration the population differences in the aimags , soums , or baghs and instead sampled equal numbers of households within each stratum.

Moreover, the convenience sampling of khot ails may have skewed behaviours, attitudes, and disease risk perceptions by families and social networks who may share the same experiences, values, and beliefs. And finally, although the household survey asked the participant to provide advice on what people should do in order to remain safe around animals, we did not ask the households if they engage in each practice.

It could be that some of the risk factors we outlined in this paper are mitigated by household practices such as animal vaccinations, the use of gloves, or by wearing masks. Rural herding households are faced with many potential zoonotic disease risks from their close contact with livestock, reliance upon animal by-products such as milk and meat, harsh living environment, and lack of accessible water, sanitation, and hygiene services.

For Mongolian herders, the health of the land is interconnected to the health of the animals and the rural families it supports. Effective disease prevention and control campaigns will require a coordinated One Health effort to adequately approach the complex challenges within households. Public health messages should be tailored to the audience based on their current knowledge and understanding of zoonotic and reverse zoonotic disease threats, their ability to access information through appropriate communication channels, and their gender roles and household responsibilities surrounding animal contact and care.

The datasets generated and analysed during the current study are not publicly available due to the personal information collected for participants but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request and in accordance with the Institutional Review Board of the Duke University Health System. Addison, Jane, and Brown. A multi-scaled analysis of the effect of climate, commodity prices and risk on the livelihoods of Mongolian pastoralists.

Journal of Arid Environments 54� Article Google Scholar. Ahearn, Ariell. Herders and hazards: Covariate dzud risk and the cost of risk management strategies in a Mongolian subdistrict. Natural Hazards 92 1 : � Winters without women: Social change, split households and gendered labour in rural Mongolia. The first survey of Theileria orientalis infection in Mongolian cattle. Veterinary Parasitology 2�4 : � Badarch, Dendevin, and Raymond A.

Mongolia today: Science, culture, environment and development. London: Routledge. Bamana, Gaby. Tea practices in Mongolia: A field of female power and gendered meanings. Asian Ethnology 74 1 : Barnes, Amber N. The association between domestic animal presence and ownership and household drinking water contamination among peri-urban communities of Kisumu, Kenya.

PLoS One 13 6 : e A systematic review of zoonotic enteric parasitic diseases among nomadic and pastoral people. PLoS One 12 11 : e Brucellosis knowledge and preventive practices among herders in Western Mongolia. Zoonoses and Public Health 66 1 : � Google Scholar. Batsukh, Zayat, B. One health in Mongolia. In One Health: The human-animal-environment interfaces in emerging infectious diseases , � Berlin: Springer.

Batsukh, Zayatiin, and Gonchigoogiin Battsetseg. One health and biosafety-need of harmonization in Mongolia. Mongolian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 13 2 : � Risk factors of brucellosis seropositivity in Bactrian camels of Mongolia.

BMC Veterinary Research 14 1 : Bedunah, Donald J. Development and Change 35 1 : � Benwell, Ann Fenger. Facing gender challenges in post-socialist Mongolia.

NIAS press. Bold, Bat-Ochir. Socio-economic segmentation�Khot-Ail in nomadic livestock keeping of Mongolia. Nomadic Peoples 69� Distribution and molecular characteristics of rickettsiae found in ticks across Central Mongolia. Cooper, Louise, and N. Pastoral production in Mongolia from a gender perspective. RRA Notes � De Leeuw, Edith D. Hox, and Mark Huisman. Prevention and treatment of item nonresponse.

Journal of Official Statistics � Dugarova, Esuna. Gender, work, and childcare in Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and Russia. Ebright, John R. Emerging infectious diseases in Mongolia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9 12 : Ercumen, Ayse, Amy J. Pickering, Laura H. Kwong, Benjamin F. Animal feces contribute to domestic fecal contamination: Evidence from E.

Foggin, Peter M. Marc Foggin, and C. Nomadic Peoples 4 1 : � Shiirev-Adiya, and B. Health status and risk factors of seminomadic pastoralists in Mongolia: A geographical approach. Hawkins, Roberta, and Joni Seager. Gender and water in Mongolia. The Professional Geographer 62 1 : 16� Honeychurch, William.

Pastoral nomadic voices: A Mongolian archaeology for the future. World Archaeology 42 3 : � Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium parvum in fecal samples of individuals in Mongolia. Ito, A. The viewer is struck by its intimacy and immediacy.

In a vivid appeal to the senses, the head is tilted back and to the right, the unseeing gaze is directed heavenward in a gesture of supplication or entreaty for understanding and deliverance or transcendence from pain and suffering. The closed eyes and open mouth accentuate the intensity of the felt emotional experience and in his suffering there is something of the sublime. In this way, the portrait shares with religious imagery a sublime quality through the representation of the summit of an emotion.

It constitutes a vivid appeal to the senses and shares with the viewer the experience of an emotion of universal significance. June Filed under anatomy traditional contemporary art modern realism conceptual ceramic clay sculpture figurative sculpture bust portrait art. Rather than coming towards us to meet or communicate with us in an expressive manner, the portrait engages the viewer through drawing us towards it and contemplatively inward.

The subject is posed with an inward looking gaze, his head ever so slightly tilted, eyes averted from the viewer and cast downward. An initial view of the portrait confronts us aesthetically particularly apparent in the clay modelling. Interestingly, as we continue to examine this portrait, any physical response is balanced and moderated by an imparted humanity that serves to identify and empathise with the general vicissitudes of life.

The modelling is masterful and through imparting intense physicality and visceral presence to the facial flesh adds a potent dimension to the study. The portrait pulls us in many directions at once and leaves us with a sense of empathy and compassion.

Sweet Melancholy. The subject is once more an intimate of the Artist enabling intense study and sensitisation to both physical attributes and inner states. The modelling, and resultant play of light suggests furtiveness, instability and movement.

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