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10th ncert history 80th unlimited access to the best preparation resource for IAS : Get detailed illustrated notes covering entire syllabus : point-by-point for high retention. There was a time without print and print itself has a history.

Technology began in East Asia and spread in 10th ncert history 80th and India. Major producer of printed material � huge bureaucratic system which recruited personnel by civil service exams � textbooks for same were printed under sponsorship of imperial state.

Rich women also began to read. Oldest Japanese book, printed in ADis Buddhist Diamond Sutra, containing six sheets of text and woodcut illustrations.

Late 18 th century � urban circle at 10th History Class 10th Ncert Notes Zoom ncert history 80th Tokyo � collection of paintings of urban culture, artists. Books on women, musical instruments, calculations, tea ceremony, flower arrangements, proper etiquette, cooking and famous places. Publishers like Tsutaya Juzaburo identified subjects and commissioned artists who drew the theme in outline.

In the process, the original drawing would be destroyed and only prints would survive. Luxury editions were handwritten on velum parchment made from animal skin for aristocratic and rich monastic libraries. Copying was an expensive, laborious and time-consuming business. Need for quicker and cheaper text reproduction � new print technology � At Strasbourg, Germany, Johann Gutenberg developed first-known printing press in s.

Gutenberg was son of merchant who grew on agricultural estate seeing olive and wine presses. Olive press provided the model for the printing press, and moulds were used for casting the metal types for the letters of the alphabet.

Byhe perfected the system and 1 st book to be printed was Bible � copies 10th ncert history 80th printed in 3 years considered fast production at that time - No two copies were the. Every page of each copy was different. Elites preferred 10th ncert history 80th due to differences colored regions were left blank while text in black � color was used to emphasis.

Printed books resembled handwritten manuscripts as metal letters intimated handwritten designs � borders 10th ncert history 80th illuminated with foliage and illustrations were painted. New reading public emerged � cost of books became less and people were able to afford it � earlier it was meant only for elite group.

Earlier common people only had oral culture � hear sacred texts, recite ballads and folk tales or see a performance � books 10th ncert history 80th expensive and could not be produce in large numbers. Again rate of literacy was very low till 20 th century � those who could not read would enjoy listening to it so folk tales were published with pictures and sung in village gatherings and taverns in towns.

Circulation of ideas emerged � those who disagreed with authorities could now print ideas. Inreligious reformer Martin Luther wrote Ninety Five Theses criticizing many of the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church � posted on church door in Wittenberg � it was immediately reproduced and led to division within Church and beginning of Protestant Reformation.

His translation of New Testament sold copies within few weeks and 2 nd edition came in 3 months. Now Roman Church established several controls over publishers and booksellers to maintain Index of Prohibited Books from Almanacs, calendars, folktales; chapbooks pocket sized books sold for penny in England.

Early 18 th century � periodical press 10th ncert history 80th � combine current affairs with entertainment; newspapers and journals. Scientists and philosophers became more accessible to common people � included scientific texts and diagrams. Thinkers like Thomas Paine, Voltaire and Jean Jacques Rousseau started to 10th ncert history 80th and read � idea about science, reason and rationality found way in literature � world could be seen with new eyes of critical understanding and reasoning.

Books meant for 10th ncert history 80th progress and enlightenment � change and liberate society from despotism and intellect could rule and bring in public 10th ncert history 80th. Popularized ideas of enlightenment thinkers � argued for rule of reason and judgment to be done on rationality; authority of Church was attacked.

Created culture of dialogue and debate � reevaluation of norms, values and institutions � new ideas of social revolution. By s literature mocked royal culture and criticized morality � cartoons suggested that monarchy was absorbed in sensual pleasures and common man suffered hardships. Spread of ideas � reinterpretation of things in their own way � it did not shape the mind but opened possibility to think differently.

Late 19 th century � primary education became compulsory � children became important readers. Penny magazines were popular in women � as manuals teaching proper behavior and housekeeping. Women novelists - 10th ncert history 80th Austen, the 10th ncert history 80th sisters, George Elio � defined new type of women as person with will, strength, determination and power to think.

Since 17 th century � lending libraries were seen. In 19 th century � it became instrument to educate workers, artisans and middle class. After working hours shortened from mid th century � workers found time for self-improvement and self-expression and started to write political tracts and autobiographies.

By the 10th ncert history 80th th century - Richard M. Hoe of New York 10th ncert history 80th perfected the power-driven cylindrical press. This was capable of printing 8, sheets per hour for printing newspapers. Late 19 th century � offset print was developed � could print 6 colors at a time. Methods of feeding paper improved, the quality of plates became better, automatic paper reels and photoelectric controls of the color register were introduced.

Nineteenth-century periodicals serialized important novels, which gave birth to a 10th ncert history 80th way of writing novels.

In the s in England, popular works were sold in cheap series, called the Shilling Series. During Great depression decline in book purchases � and people bought cheap paperback editions. India had rich handwritten manuscripts I Sanskrit, Arabian and Persian � copied on palm leaves or handmade papers with beautiful illustrations and wooden covers. Highly expensive and fragile manuscripts were made � handled carefully and could not be read as the scripts were written in different styles.

In Schools mainly Bengal � extensive primary schools but children did not read texts, they only could write. Jesuit preists learnt Konkani and printed tracts. By50 books were printed in Konkani and Kanara languages. Indians began to publish Indian newspapers - first to appear was the weekly 10th ncert history 80th Gazette, brought out by Gangadhar Bhattacharya, who was close to Rammohan Roy.

Time of controversy between religious reformers and orthodoxy like widow immolation, monotheism and idolatry.

In north India � Ulama legal scholars of Islam were worried about collapse of Muslim dynasty � believed colonial rule could encourage conversion � used cheap lithographic presses, published Persian and Urdu translations of holy scriptures, and printed religious newspapers and tracts.

By s - caricatures and cartoons were published in journals and newspapers, commenting on social and political issues � ridiculed educated Indians fascination for Western tastes. Mentality was not liberal - Conservative Hindus believed that a literate girl would be widowed and Muslims feared that educated women would be corrupted by reading Urdu romances.

Later, she wrote her autobiography Amar Jiban which was published in It was the first full-length autobiography published in the Bengali language. 10th ncert history 80th Chaddha published fast-selling Istri Dharm Vichar to teach women how to be obedient wives.

Khalsa Tract Society published cheap booklets with a similar message. Central Calcutta area Battala � devoted to printing of popular books � cheap editions of religious and literature texts � many were illustrated with woodcuts and colored lithographs. Pedlars 10th ncert history 80th Battala publications to homes, enabling women to read. Early 20 th century � public libraries were set up expanding access to books for rich, setting up 10th ncert history 80th was way to acquire prestige.

In 20 th century, B. Ambedkar in Maharashtra and E. Ramaswamy Naicker Periyar in Madras wrote powerfully on caste and their writings were read by people all over India.

Kashibaba, a Kanpur millworker, wrote and published Chhote Aur Bade Ka Sawal in to show the links between caste and class exploitation. The poems of another Kanpur millworker, who wrote under the name of Sudarshan 10th ncert history 80th between andwere brought together and published in a collection called Sacchi Kavitayan.

By s, Bangalore cotton millworkers set up libraries to educate themselves, following the example of Bombay workers. Beforecolonial state under East India Company were not too concerned with censorship. Early measures to control printed matter were directed against Englishmen in India who were critical of Company misrule and hated the actions of particular Company officers.

Company was worried that such criticisms might be used by its critics in England to attack its trade monopoly in India. Infaced with urgent petitions by editors of English and vernacular newspapers, Governor-General Bentinck agreed to revise 10th ncert history 80th laws.

Thomas Macaulay liberal colonial official formulated new rules that restored the earlier freedoms. Nationalist newspapers reported on colonial misrule and encouraged nationalist activities � it led to renewed cycle of persecution and protests. When 10th ncert history 80th revolutionaries were deported inBalgangadhar Tilak wrote with great sympathy about them in his Kesari.

This led to his imprisonment inprovoking in turn widespread protests all over India. Study Material English. History Study Material.

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He involved The Sardinian sailors to Revolt in A. Give feedback and suggestions to improve the contents of this website so that more and more students can take advantage of these free contents. Revision Books and study material in Hindi and English Medium is also available to free download. How many chapters are there in History for Class 10? What are the learning objectives of Chapter 2 � Nationalism in India?

What are the learning objectives of Chapter 4 � The Age of Industrialisation? This was a successful war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries between and against the Ottoman Empire. The Greeks were supported by the West European countries, while poets Ncert Solutions Class 10th History Chapter 7 Year and artists hailed Greece as the cradle of European civilisation. Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of recognised Greece as an independent nation.

Briefly trace the process of German unification. The process of German unification was continued by Prussia after the defeat of the liberal, middle-class Germans at the hands of the aristocrats and the military in Its chief minister Otto von Bismarck carried out this process with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.

Over seven years, Prussia fought three wars with Austria, Denmark and France. These wars culminated in Prussian victory and German unification. How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe? The history of nationalism in Britain was unlike that in the rest of Europe in the sense that it was forced down upon the masses.

There was no concept of a British nation prior to the eighteenth century. The region was in fact inhabited by different ethnic groups English, Welsh, Scot, Irish.

Each group had its own cultural and political tradition. However, as the English state grew in terms of wealth, importance and power, it was able to extend its influence over the other states of the islands.

The English parliament, which had seized power from the monarchy, played a crucial role in doing away with the ethnic distinctions and uniting the different groups into a British nation-state, with England at its centre. The ethnic nationalities were, directly or indirectly, forced to join the English state to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain. The symbols of new Britain�the British flag, the national anthem and the English language were widely popularised, while the distinctive identities of the other joining states were systematically suppressed.

English culture dominated the British nation, while the other states became mere subsidiaries in the Union. Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act. It gave the government autocratic powers to repress political activities besides allowing it to detain political prisoners without a trial, for two years. The Indian were outraged by this act as it was clearly undemocratic and oppressive, and hurt national sentiments and dignity.

Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1. The image of Bharat Mata as painted by Abanindranath Tagore shows her as bestowing learning, food and clothing. She bears aesthetic quality as denoted by the mala held by her.

This is similar to the image of Germania as painted by Philip Veit, where she holds a sword, but looks more feminine. The knitting together of a modern Vietnamese nation that brought the different communities together was in part the result of colonisation but, as importantly, it was shaped by the struggle against colonial domination.

If you see the historical experience of Indo-China in relation to that of India, you will discover important differences in the way colonial empires functioned and the anti-imperial movement developed. By looking at such differences and similarities you can understand the variety of ways in which nationalism has developed and shaped the contemporary world.

Important updates relating to your studies which will help you to keep yourself updated with latest happenings in school level education. Keep yourself updated with all latest news and also read articles from teachers which will help you to improve your studies, increase motivation level and promote faster learning. SOF is the educational foundation involved in the academic upgradation of students. This Olympiad is a maths competitive examination conducted for the aspiring Revised date sheet for Class 12 - scroll down for datesheet for class 10 Revised datesheet for Class In this chapter, we get to know about the long history of trade and migration of people that gave rise to the making of the global world.

It explains how the culture, technology, and ideas were exchanged between the nations. We learn about the globalisation, silk routes, the role of technology and trade were in this chapter. There are total nine questions in this chapter. NCERT solutions will help to understand all these complex topics in the easiest and simplest way. This was the period of 18th and 19th centuries when industrialization actually began.

This chapter explains how the age of industrialisation marked the beginning of modernisation. It stimulated the process of setting up of new factories, production of goods on a large scale that eventually gave a push to the worldwide trade. This chapter focuses on the history of Britain which was the first industrial nation. It also explains how the industrial pattern was changed in India due to the colonial rule.

This chapter has total seven questions. Class 10 History Chapter - 5 explains the development of print, from its beginnings in East Asia to its expansion in Europe and then in India. With this chapter, we get to know how print technology affected the cultures and social lives.





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