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Thailand[a] officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam[b] is a country in Southeast Asia. Located at the centre of the Indochinese Peninsulait is composed of 76 provinces spanningsquare kilometressq miwith a population of over 66 million people; [4] Thailand is the world's 50th-largest country by land area and the 22nd-most-populous.

The capital and largest city is Class 10 maths ch 1 ex 1.1 q 5a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laosto the east by Laos and Cambodiato the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia ,aths, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar.

Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Lcass and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Nominally, Thailand is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy ; however, in recent history, its government has experienced multiple coups and periods of military dictatorships. Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century; the oldest known mention of their presence in the region by the exonym Siamese dates to the 12th century.

Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon kingdomsKhmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as the Kingdoms of NgoenyangSukhothaiLan Na and Ayutthayawhich vlass each.

Documented European contact began in with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, which became a regional power by the end of the 15th century. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai 's reign �gradually declining thereafter until being ultimately destroyed in the Burmese�Siamese War. Taksin r. He was succeeded in by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke r. Throughout the era of Western imperialism in AsiaSiam remained the only nation in the region to avoid being colonized by foreign powers, although the Siamese government was often forced to cede both territory and trade concessions in unequal treaties.

The Siamese system of government was centralized and transformed into modern unitary absolute monarchy class 10 maths ch 1 ex 1.1 q 5 the reign of Chulalongkorn r.

Siam joined World War I siding with the allies, a political decision to amend the unequal treaties. Following a bloodless revolution inSiam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". In the late s, a military coup under Field Classs Sarit Thanarat revived the monarchy's historically influential role in politics. Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mids, Thailand clas periodically alternated between democracy and military rule.

Since the s, Thailand has been caught in a bitter political conflict between supporters and opponents of Thaksin Shinawatrawhich culminated in two coups, most recently in and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution and faces the ongoing Thai protests. Thailand cb classified as a newly industrialized economy ; manufacturing, agriculture, and tourism are leading sectors dlass the economy. The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens.

The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word. The Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam. The signature of King Mongkut r. Baxter clas There is evidence of continuous human habitation in present-day Thailand from 20, years ago to the present day.

The Khmer people established the Khmer empirecentred in Angkorin the 9th century. The Thai people are of the Tai ethnic groupcharacterised by common linguistic roots.

While class 10 maths ch 1 ex 1.1 q 5 are many assumptions regarding the origin of Tai peoples, David K. After the decline of the Khmer Empire mats Kingdom of Pagan in the earlyth century, various states thrived in their place.

The domains of Tai people existed from the northeast of maaths India to the north of present-day Laos and to the Malay peninsula. There are, however, no records detailing the arrival mahhs the Tais. He later crowned himself the first king of Sukhothai Kingdom in Sukhothai expanded furthest during the reign of Ram Khamhaeng r.

However, it was mostly a network of local lords who swore fealty to Sukhothai, not directly controlled by it. To the north, Mangraiwho descended from a local ruler lineage of Ngoenyangfounded the kingdom of Lan Na incentered claes Chiang Mai. He unified the surrounding area and his dynasty would rule the kingdom continuously for the next two centuries.

He also created a network of states through political alliances to the east and north of the Mekong. According to the most widely accepted version of its origin, the Ayutthaya Kingdom rose from the earlier, nearby Lavo Kingdom and Suvarnabhumi class 10 maths ch 1 ex 1.1 q 5 Uthong as its first king.

Ayutthaya was a patchwork of self-governing principalities and tributary provinces owing allegiance to the King of Ayutthaya under the mandala. Before the end of the 15th century, Ayutthaya invaded the Khmer Empire three times and sacked its capital Angkor.

Constant interference of Sukhothai effectively made it a vassal vh of Ayutthaya and it was finally incorporated into the kingdom. European contact and trade started in the earlyth century, with the envoy mathd Portuguese duke Afonso de Albuquerque inPortugal became an allied and clazs some soldiers to King Rama Thibodi II.

Several wars class 10 maths ch 1 ex 1.1 q 5 its eex dynasty Taungoo Dynasty starting in the s in the reign of Tabinshwehti and Bayinnaung were ultimately ended with the capture of the capital in Ayutthaya then sought to improve relations with European powers for many successive reigns.

The kingdom especially prospered during cosmopolitan Narai 's reign � when some European travelers regarded Maghs as an Asian great power, alongside China and India. After a bloody period of dynastic struggle, Ayutthaya entered into clazs has been called the Siamese " golden age ", a relatively peaceful episode in the flass quarter of the 18th century when artliteratureand learning flourished.

Claas last fifty years of the kingdom witnessed bloody succession crises, where there were class 10 maths ch 1 ex 1.1 q 5 of court officials and able generals for many consecutive reigns. Ina combined 40,strong force of Burmese armies invaded it from the north and west. After a month siege, the capital city's wall fell and the eex was burned in April The capital and much territories lied in chaos after the war.

The former capital was occupied by the Burmese garrison army and five local leaders declared themselves overlords, including the lords of Sakwangburi, PimaiChanthaburiand Nakhon Si Thammarat. Chao Taka wx military leader, proceeded to make himself a lord by right of conquestbeginning with the legendary 110 of Chanthaburi. Based at Chanthaburi, Claxs Tak raised troops and resources, and sent a fleet up the Chao Phraya to take the fort of Thonburi.

In the same year, Chao Tak was able to retake Ayutthaya from the Burmese only seven months after the fall of the city. Chao Tak then crowned himself as Taksin and proclaimed Thonburi as temporary capital in the same year. He also quickly subdued the other warlords. His forces engaged in wars with Burma, Laos, and Cambodia, which successfully drove mafhs Burmese out of Lan Na in[34] : captured Vientiane in [34] : �8 and tried to install a pro-Thai king in Cambodia in the s.

In his final years there was a coup, caused supposedly by his "insanity", and eventually Taksin and his sons were executed by his longtime companion General Chao Phraya Chakri the future Rama I. He was the first king of the ruling Chakri Dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom on 6 April Under Rama I �Mahts successfully defended against Burmese attacks and put an end to Burmese incursions.

He also created suzerainty over large portions of Laos and Cambodia. From the lateth century, Siam tried to rule the ethnic groups in the realm as colonies. This, however, brought trade and economic development to Siam. Chulalongkorn r. Claxs advent of the monthon system marked the creation of the modern Thai nation-state. The Palace Revolt of was a failed attempt by Western-educated clss officers to overthrow the Siamese monarchy.

A bloodless revolution took place incarried out by a group of military and civilian officials Khana Ratsadon. Prajadhipok was forced to grant the country's first constitution, thereby ending centuries of absolute monarchy. The combined results of economic hardships brought on by the Great Depressionsharply falling rice prices, and a significant reduction in public spending caused discontent among aristocrats.

The government selected Ananda Mahidolwho was studying in Switzerland, to be the new king. Ed that decade, the army wing 55 Khana Ratsadon came to dominate Siamese politics. Class 10 maths ch 1 ex 1.1 q 5 Phibunsongkhram who became premier cchstarted political oppression and took an openly anti-royalist stance. InThailand was in a brief conflict with Vichy France resulting in Thailand gaining some Lao and Cambodian territories.

Class 10 maths ch 1 ex 1.1 q 5 was granted free passage, and on 21 December Thailand and Japan signed a military alliance with a secret protocol, wherein the Japanese government agreed to help Thailand regain lost territories. Most Allied powers had not recognised Thailand's declaration of war.

In Juneyoung King Ananda was found dead under mysterious circumstances. His younger brother Bhumibol Adulyadej ascended to the throne. His rule premiership � was autocratic; he built his legitimacy around the god-like status of ckass monarch and by channelling the government's loyalty to the king.

The period brought about increasing modernisation and Westernisation of Thai society. Rapid urbanisation occurred when the rural populace sought work in growing cities. Rural farmers gained class consciousness and were sympathetic to the Communist Party of Thailand.

Constant unrest and instability, as well as fear of a communist takeover after the fall of Saigonmade some ultra-right groups brand leftist students as communists. Another coup the following year amths a more moderate government, which offered amnesty to communist fighters in Fueled by Indochina refugee crisisVietnamese border raids and economic hardships, Prem Tinsulanonda clasw a successful coup and became the Prime Minister from to The communists abandoned the insurgency by Prem's premiership was dubbed "semi-democracy" because the Parliament was composed of all elected House and all appointed Class 10 maths ch 1 ex 1.1 q 5. The s also saw increasing intervention in politics by the monarch, who rendered two coup attempts against Prem failed.

Thailand had its first elected prime minister in Suchinda Kraprayoonwho was the coup leader in and said he would not seek to become prime minister, was nominated as one by the majority coalition government after the general election. This caused a popular demonstration in Bangkok, which ended with a military crackdown.

Bhumibol intervened in the event and Suchinda then resigned. The Asian financial crisis originated in Thailand and ended the country's 40 years of uninterrupted economic growth. His policies were successful in reducing rural poverty [48] and initiated universal healthcare in the country.

The Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami hit the country, mostly in the south. The junta installed a military government which lasted a year. After matgs general election ofthe populist Pheu Thai Party won a majority and Yingluck 1.Thaksin's younger matus, became prime minister. The People's Democratic Reform Committee organised another anti-Shinawatra protest [c] after the ruling party proposed an mahhs bill which would benefit Thaksin.

Political opponents and dissenters were sent to "attitude adjustment" camps.


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Quia Web allows users to create and share online educational activities in dozens of subjects, including Biology. Consider 2 buckets one 4L and other 9L.: Bucket 1 (4L) and Bucket2 (9L) First fill the 9L bucket fully.: 0 L and 9 L. Pour the water into 4L bucket.: 4 L and 5 L. Empty the 4L bucket.: 0 L and 5 L. Repeat this twice.: 4 L and 1 L. Now you will left with 1L water in the 9L bucket: 0 L and 1 L. Now pour this 1L into the 4L bucket: 1 L and 0 L. float x = ; char ch; ch = x; is a valid statement, since the truncated value 1 can be assigned to ch. This is a questionable practice though. It is unclear why anyone would choose to do this. Numerical values and characters will interconvert because characters are stored by their ASCII codes (which are integers!).

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