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Graphics make programming more fun for many people. To fully introduce graphics would involve many ideas that would be a distraction. This section introduces a simplified graphics module developed by John Zelle for use with his Python Programming book. My slight elaboration of his package is graphics. You need the file graphics. Be sure to save any graphics program you write in such a folder like my design your own boat graphics python folder.

The easiest way to ensure this is to start in the design your own boat graphics python folder, as discussed in Starting Idle for Editing. To work design your own boat graphics python the most systems, this version of graphics. There is an issue with the use of multiple threads of execution. You will just be a user of the graphics.

It uses all sorts of features of Python that are way beyond these tutorials. There is no particular need to open graphics. Load into Idle and start running example graphIntroSteps. Each time you press return, look at the screen and read the explanation for the next line s.

Bring it to the top, and preferably drag it around to make it visible beside your Shell window. The assignment statement remembers the window object as win for future reference.

This will be our standard name for our graphics window object. A small window, by pixels is created. A pixel is the smallest little square that can by displayed on your screen.

Modern screen usually have more than pixels across the whole screen. This creates a Point object and assigns it the name pt. Unlike when a GraphWin is created, nothing is immediately displayed: In theory you could have more than one GraphWin. Zelle designed the graphics module so you must tell Python into which GraphWin to draw the Point. A Point object, like each of the graphical objects that can be drawn on a GraphWinhas a method [1] draw.

Now you should see the Design your own boat graphics python if you look hard in the Graphics Window - it shows as a single, small, black pixel. Graphics windows have a Cartesian x,y coordinate. The dimensions are initially measured in pixels. The first coordinate is the horizontal coordinate, measured from left to right, so is about half way across the pixel wide window.

The second coordinate, for the vertical direction, increases going down from the top of the window by default, not up as you Design Your Own Boat Graphics 1.5 are likely to expect from geometry or algebra class.

We will see later that we can reorient the coordinate system to fit our taste. Henceforth you will see a draw method call after each object is created, so there is something to see.

The first line creates a Circle object with center at the previously defined pt and with radius This object is remembered with the name cir. As with all graphics objects that may be drawn within a GraphWinit is only made visible by explicitly using design your own boat graphics python draw method.

So far, everything has been drawn in the default color black. Graphics objects like a Circle have methods to change their colors. Basic color name strings are recognized. You can choose the color for the circle outline as well as filling design your own boat graphics python the inside. Note the method names. They can be used with other kinds of Graphics objects. We delay a discussion of fancier colors until Color Names and Custom Colors.

A Line object is constructed with two Points as parameters. In this case we use the previously named Point, ptand specify another Point directly. Technically the Line object is a segment between the the two points. In Pythonis a tuplenot a Point.

To make a Pointyou must use the full constructor: Point Point s, not tuple s, must be used in the constructors for all graphics objects. In this simple system, a Rectangle is restricted to have horizontal and vertical sides. A Polygonintroduced in the next section, is used for all more general straight-sided shapes. You can move objects around in a GraphWin.

Shortly this will be handy for animation. The parameters to the move method are the amount to shift the x and y coordinates. See if you can guess the result before you press return :. Take your last look at the Graphics Window, and make sure that all the steps make sense. Then destroy the window win with the GraphWin method close. The example program graphIntro. At the end of graphIntro. You can load graphIntro.

Of course you will not see their effect until you run the whole program! Unfortunately the graphics do not work when entered directly into the Shell. In graphIntro. Instead consider a very simple example program, face. The only interaction is to click the mouse to close the graphics window.

In Windows, have a folder window open to the Python examples folder containing face. If that does not work on your system, you can always run from inside Idle. After you have checked out the picture, click with the mouse inside the picture, as requested, to terminate the program.

After you have run the program, you can examine the program in Idle or look. The whole program is shown first; smaller pieces of it are discussed later:. Immediately after the documentation string, always have the import line in your graphics program, to allow easy access to the graphics. The first line shows the more general design your own boat graphics python for constructing a new GraphWin, a window title plus width and height in design your own boat graphics python. The second line shows how to turn the coordinate system right-side-up, so the y coordinate increases up the screen, using the yUp method.

Thereafter, all coordinates are given in the new coordinate. All the lines of code up to this design your own boat graphics python in the program are my standard graphics program starting lines other than the specific values for the title and dimensions.

You will likely start your programs with similar code. The lines above create two circles, in each case specifying the centers directly. They are filled in and made visible. Also note, that because the earlier win. If the code was switched to put the head part second, the eye would become hidden. The most recent thing drawn is on top. The code above draws and displays a line, and illustrates design your own boat graphics python method available to graphics object, setWidthmaking a thicker line.

The code above illustrates another kind of graphics object, an Oval or ellipse. There are several ways an oval could be specified. Zelle chose to have you specify the corners of the bounding box that is just as high and as wide as the oval. This rectangle is only imagined, not actually drawn. If you want to see such a rectangle, create a Rectangle object with the same two Points as parameters The code above illustrates how a Text object is used to place text on the window.

The parameters to construct the Text object are the point at the center of the text, and the text string. The exact coordinates for the parts were determined by a number of trial-and-error refinements to the program. An advantage of graphics is that you can see the results of your programming, and make changes if you do not like the results!

In this simple system, there is not a good way to predict the dimensions of text on the screen. The final action is to have the user signal to close the window. Just as with waiting for keyboard input from inputit is important to prompt the user before waiting for a response! In a GraphWin, that means using prompt must be made with a Text object displayed explicitly before the response is expected.

The new addition to the Text parameters here is win. There is also a win. Using win. After the first two lines draw the prompting text, the line win. In this program, the position of the mouse click is not important. In the next example the position of this mouse click will be used.


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