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Time Required: 1 hours 30 minutes can be build your own boat team edge knowledge into two minute sessions. Partial Design Process These resources engage students in some of the steps in the engineering design process, but do not have them complete the full process. While some of these resources may focus heavily on the brainstorm and design steps, others may emphasize the testing and analysis phases. Although no charge or fee is required for using TeachEngineering curricular materials in your classroom, the lessons build your own boat team edge knowledge activities often require material supplies.

The expendable cost is the estimated cost of supplies needed for each group of students involved in the activity. Students create their own miniature Viking ships.

In addition to their reputation as barbaric warriors, the Vikings were clever engineers, especially at sea. This nomadic group of sailors understood how engineering solutions are shaped by the availability of resources and the surrounding environment. It is incredible that the ship design created by Vikings more than 1, years ago is still used today! Today, engineers gain valuable knowledge by studying designs and technologies that have been successful over time.

Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K science, technology, engineering or math STEM educational standards. In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; e.

Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions. Grades 6 - 8.

Do you agree with this alignment? Thanks for your feedback! Alignment agreement: Thanks for your feedback! Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem. Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved.

View aligned curriculum. To motivate the activity and provide some historical background about the Vikings and their ships, read the following eight paragraphs aloud to the students, or have different students read each paragraph aloud to the class [print out and cut up the attached Who Were the Vikings?

Reading ]. Use the questions in the reading to encourage discussion. The Vikings lived 1, years ago, mostly on ships that sailed across the seas of Build your own boat team edge knowledge Europe, waging war upon people living in nearby villages and towns. The Vikings are famous for the way they launched surprise attacks � raiding, plundering and invading the lands of their more peaceful neighbors.

In fact, the Vikings invented a boat design that is still used today. Because the Vikings were known for stealing and plundering, it makes sense that they designed their boats for surprise attacks and battles.

What features might a good surprise-attack ship have? Gather suggestions from the students. Possible answers: Speed, maneuverability, ability to withstand attacks, ability to hide.

The hull of a boat is the body. It build your own boat team edge knowledge the buoyancy that keeps the boat from sinking.

Why do you think Viking ships were built with narrow hulls? Listen to student ideas. Possible answers: To enable ships to move quickly and access the narrowest inland waterways. Viking ships also had single sails and masts. What advantages might boats with single sails and masts have? Answer: A single mast and sail keeps a boat lightweight, which allows it to travel fast.

Also, boats with a single mast and sail can hide more easily. Also, having a single sail and mast makes it easy to take down the sail. Thus, Viking ships could lower their sails quickly if they needed to hide! Vikings ships were best at sailing down wind. However, they often needed to sail across the water in battle or attack.

Can you imagine what feature the Vikings engineered to steer their ships across the wind? They designed a rudder for the back of their ships to enable them to steer across wind. A rudder is a small oar attached to the right-hand side of the boat near the. By adjusting the position of the rudder, the Vikings could steer their ships in the desired direction. They also used human power � rowing � to keep the ship moving when there was little or no wind, or when the wind was working against.

The Vikings understood how engineering solutions are shaped by the available resources, the environment, and the world around us. They creatively used what resources they had wood, fabric, metal sparingly to create simple yet strong ships.

We certainly can learn a lot about engineering by studying designs that have been successful over time! Although the Vikings were barbaric fighters, they were remarkable engineers! In modern days, mechanical and materials engineers design, test and build ships and other watercraft.

Mechanical engineers apply principles of physics to analyze, design and manufacture mechanical systems, including ships. Materials engineers study the properties of matter.

By investigating the relation between the structure of materials and their properties, materials build your own boat team edge knowledge select and design the best combination of materials for various kinds of boats and ships. Our challenge today is to design, test and build our own watercraft. We will examine our environment and use only a limited amount of resources to create build your own boat team edge knowledge model or miniature ship � just like the Vikings and engineers!

History of the Vikings : Mentioning the word "Vikings" brings to mind images of wild, barbaric sailors, ravaging their more peaceful neighbors with fire, sword and brute force. The Vikings originated in Scandinavia and are infamous for their long, swift ships with which they raided the coasts of Britain, Ireland and mainland Europe. During their peak, from to AD, the Vikings swept across oceans and land to pillage, steal, destroy and colonize armies and civilians.

Often overlooked is the fact that the Vikings were more than wild barbarians. Their culture valued strong family bonds; strict community law and order; a society in which women had more freedom than other European communities of the time; a farming tradition that encouraged self-sufficiency; and a love for poetry, art, craftsmanship, and oral "sagas. The Vikings were a nomadic people from an area with sparse open water and no seashore; however, this environment did not stop them from inventing a boat design that became popular throughout Europe for several centuries.

The Vikings did not always have an abundance of materials to use when building or repairing their ships, so they were creative and efficient in their use of resources.

Traditional Viking ship. Characteristics of Viking Ships : The Vikings designed fast ships that could travel using only the power of the wind. Many Viking ships were built for raiding, plundering and battling. Their hulls were typically long, lean and flexible, which enabled the ships to invade the narrowest inland waterways.

The ships were built to be as lightweight as possible so as to move swiftly. Traditionally, Viking ships were constructed with a single sail and mast. This kept the boats lightweight and reduced the amount of time required to take down the mast and sail if the need arose to hide quickly. With their single sails and masts, Viking ships could largely sail only downwind, but evidence from ship replicas indicates that they could travel across the wind as.

Steering was accomplished by an oar-like rudder called a "styri," secured to the right-hand side of the ship near the stern.

The Vikings called this side of the ship "stjornbordi," which is where the term "starboard" originated. The left side of a boat is traditionally called the "port side". The Vikings adjusted the rudder to move the ship along a certain course. Most Vikings sails were rectangular in shape. Square-shaped sails were not used because they can make a ship top-heavy, and they catch build your own boat team edge knowledge up high in the sail, which can push the stern into the water, increasing the drag on the hull.

By contrast, rectangular sails helped to make the ships highly maneuverable. Also, the matching bow and stern that characterized Viking ships allowed the ships to travel in either direction. Engineering Design Process : Engineers follow a design, build and test loop as they apply scientific and mathematical principles to creative and practical ends such as the design, manufacture and operation of build your own boat team edge knowledge and economical structures, machines, processes and systems.

The steps of the engineering design process include: 1 Define the problem, 2 Come up with ideas [brainstorming], 3 Select the most promising design, build your own boat team edge knowledge Analyze and plan the design, 5 Create and test the design, and 6 Evaluate and revise the design.

As part of defining the problem, engineers determine the purpose and requirements of the project. And, they work within given constraints that may include materials, resources, time, funds, build your own boat team edge knowledge and social impact, and other limitations.

Figure 1. Example race course set in a pool of water with potted plants as obstacles. The engineering design process. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Attaching the mast and sail. Figure 5. The race! The shape of bow is usually designed to reduce the resistance of the hull as it cuts through the water. It should also be tall enough to prevent water from washing over the top of it. Drag is caused by friction and pressure forces acting to slow the motion of the build your own boat team edge knowledge. Cut apart each paragraph to create reading slips.

Have eight students take turns reading each paragraph out loud to the class.

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1/23/�� Step 1: Working in your teams, brainstorm and create your design for a model Viking ship. Step 2: Once you have analyzed the design by considering all the different circumstances that might cause your ship to fail, build your ship. Step 3: Your final step is to test your ship to evaluate its performance. What you learn from testing determines any modifications you need to make so your .




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